Vol. 11 No. 1 (2022)

Editorial Note
Change in Name and Scope:
Attaining a Brighter Future for Researchers
The Senate of the University of Dar es Salaam approved the change of the name of the
Journal of Education, Humanities and Sciences (JEHS) to the Journal of Humanities and Social
Sciences (JHSS). The changes involved both the name and scope as effective from January
2022, pending the release of the first volume of 2022. Now that this issue of the journal
is released, the editorial team wishes to invite our esteemed readers to enjoy the maiden
issue of the journal in a new name and scope.
This change has been carried out not only to narrow the scope and hence make the
journal more acceptable to major databases, but also effectively share knowledge and/or
skills in the fields of humanities and social sciences. In addition, narrowing scope
enhances the journal’s visibility and competitive edge as it publishes on a focused area at
a greater depth, thereby attracting larger readership.
We would like to inform all our esteemed readers, authors, reviewers and the general
public that the new journal carries on publishing under the same series and status, i.e.,
maintain serialization and international status. Furthermore, like JEHS, the JHSS will
continue to be indexed in EBSCO and AJOL.
The new journal will be published biennially and receive manuscripts from traditional
areas of humanities, social sciences and multidisciplinary disciplines in humanities and
social sciences. It accepts contributions from the fields of anthropology, archeology,
development studies, economics, ethnographic accounts, human geography, history,
language in education, linguistics, literature, political science, and sociology.
In this volume, the journal provides contributions in the areas of lexical semantics of the
verb by Andy Chebanne, and a discourse analysis of campaign speeches delivered by exPresident Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete and Dr Wilbroad Slaa by Kelvin M. Lukanga. Both Method
Samwel and Spemba Spemba offer contributions to literary critiques: the former doing
literary critique of bongo flavor, and the latter on a novel. Pastory Bushozi, an archeologist,
offers an analysis of rock paints at Mumba. Tiemo Haule’s paper discusses issues of
household food security. All six papers contribute to discourses in either humanities
and/or social sciences. The exception is the paper by Jaqueline Amani, which is published
to accomplish backlogs of papers under the previous name of JEHS.
With a bearing set on a bright future, we warmly invite readers, authors and reviewers to
actively contribute towards the success of the newly launched Journal of Humanities and
Social Sciences.
Prof William A. L. Anangisye
Chief Editor

Published: Jun 18, 2022

Vol. 10 No. 6 (2021)

Published: May 31, 2022

Vol. 10 No. 5 (2021)

Published: Dec 9, 2021

Vol. 10 No. 4 (2021)

Published: Dec 9, 2021

Special Issue Gender II
Vol. 10 No. 3 (2021)

Published: Dec 8, 2021

Special Issue on Gender I
Vol. 10 No. 2 (2021)

Published: Dec 7, 2021

Vol. 10 No. 1 (2021)

Published: Dec 7, 2021

Vol. 9 No. 3 (2021)

Published: Mar 27, 2022

SPECIAL ISSUE OF SCIENCE, 2020
Vol. 9 No. 2 (2020)

Published: Nov 19, 2020

Vol. 9 No. 1 (2020)

Published: Nov 18, 2020

Vol. 8 No. 2 (2019)

Published: Jan 3, 2020

EDUCATION AND ADOLESCENT STUDENTS’ WELL-BEING
Vol. 8 No. 1 (2019)

Published: Nov 20, 2020

Vol. 7 No. 2 (2018)

Published: Dec 19, 2018

Vol. 6 No. 1 (2017)

Published: Dec 6, 2017

Vol. 5 No. 2 (2016)

Published: Mar 28, 2022

Vol. 5 No. 1 (2016)

Published: Mar 28, 2022

Volume 3, Nos. 1 & 2, 2014
Vol. 3 No. 1 & 2 (2014)

1. Introduction
Since 2009, Sam Maghimbi, Professor of Sociology and Anthropology, became the Dean of
the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, and in 2012 the first issue of the Journal of
Education, Humanities and Sciences (JEHS), which he founded, appeared. The current team of
editors for JEHS is pleased to dedicate this journal issue to the founding editor and mentor,
Professor Samwel Joseph Maghimbi (Sam Maghimbi). The issue has ten papers that surround
areas which Sam Maghimbi has contributed to throughout his career. Perhaps we should
articulate, very briefly, his career development for the last thirty-seven years (between 1977
and 2014), before dwelling into the actual academic contributions herein.
2. Career Development
2.1 Academic and Employment Records: A Brief Expose
Sam Maghimbi earned his BA (General) of the University of Dar es Salaam in 1977. It is
motivating to learn that his aspirations and abilities to compose serious academic works
began with his outstanding bachelor’s essay Political Economy of the Peasants in Kisarawe,
Coast Region, produced in 1977 at the University of Dar es Salaam. Later on Mr. Sam
Maghimbi obtained two master degrees. He graduated in MA (Sociology) at the
University of Dar es Salaam in 1980, and wrote a dissertation titled Economic and Political
Relations in Ugweno: The Reproduction of a Kulak Elit in a Cash Crop Area in Mwanga District,
Kilimanjaro Region. Then he pursued M.Sc. (Social Planning in Developing Countries) at the
London School of Economics, where he graduated in 1981.
During the period between 1977 and 1985 he served as an a tutor at the Cooperative
College Moshi, now a Constituent College of the Sokoine University of Agriculture.
Perhaps his engagement into Rural Sociology and Anthropology, an area he has
contributed much, sprung from his tutorship during this period. This is evident in his
academic work at Cooperative College Moshi, which was supported by his presentations
and publications on Rural Development Planning, Peasants Investment Patterns, Co-operative
Movement and the Crisis in Tanzania’s Rural Economy.
In between 1985 and 1990, Mr. Sam Maghimbi was employed as a Lecturer in the
Department of Sociology at the University of Dar es Salaam. During this period, he also
went to pursue his PhD studies at the London School of Economics, graduating in 1990
with a thesis entitled Rural Development Policy and Planning in Tanzania. His enormous
publications since early 1990s warrant us to say that Dr. Maghimbi further engaged
himself in research about peasantry in Africa with Tanzanian perspective.After making a number of serious publications, mainly on Farmers’ Cooperatives in
Tanzania, Population Characteristics and Planning in Tanzania, and Agricultural Revolution, Dr.
Sam Maghimbi rose to the rank of Senior Lecturer in the Department of Sociology and
Anthropology of the University of Dar es Salaam from June 1990. As it is the tradition
in the University, his close engagements in research and publications, mainly on
Anthropology of Peasantry in Tanzania, Rise and Fall of Cooperatives in Tanzania Mainland and
Zanzibar, and Economies of Rural Farmers (e.g. Gweno) and Pastoralists (e.g. Maasai), he turned
Associate Professor of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology in June 1995. Dr.
Sam Maghimbi (Associate Professor) maintained his zeal to conduct research on
Peasantry, Cooperatives, Sociolinguistics and Demography whose publications enabled him
rise to the top most rank of academics, a Full Professor in the Department of Sociology
and Anthropology (University of Dar es Salaam), in July 2006. In marking the end of formal
contributions, he delivered his Professorial Inaugural Lecture (entitled Populist Theory in
Russia and Tanzania: A Collage of Ideas) on the 1st October 2012.
One of the best traits of universities is mentorship to research work conducted by
graduate students. Thus, this is another credit to Professor Maghimbi because in
between 1990 and 2014 he supervised over 30 MA and PhD students in the University of
Dar es Salaam, University College of Dublin, and University of Cape Town. His graduate
students researched and wrote topics surrounding economic structural changes and
population migration, the value of children and fertility, urbanization and environmental
management, land tenure systems and fertility change in rural areas, gender
relationships and coastal resources utilization and management, HIV and AIDS,
vulnerability and resilience, etc.
Furthermore, his exposure to the external world of academia (mainly in European and Asian
continents) is also outstanding. He worked as a Visiting Academician at Churchill College of
University of Cambridge and the University of Hull in between 1989 and 1990. He served as
Visiting Professor at the University of Hitotsubashi in Tokyo (Japan) in 1998 and Kyoto
University in between 2002 and 2003. From 2006 to 2007 he was a Visiting Professor in the
Department of Political Science and Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Carleton
University. Recently (2013 - 2014), he became the Nelson Mandela (Professorial) Chair for
African Studies atJawarhalNehruUniversity inNew Delhi(India).
2.2 In the World Academia Writings: Brief Record of His Series of Publications
For the period of over three decades, Sam Maghimbi managed to produce numerous
publications (about 35 books and book chapters, and 26 journal papers). He single-handedly
authored 5 books and co-edited about 6 books (with eminent scholars such as British
Anthropologist, Peter G. Foster; Tanzanian historian, Isaria Kimambo; American Political
Scientist, Goran Hyden; Japanese anthropologist, Kazuhiko Sugimura, etc.) mainly on
peasantry economy, economy of affection, agrarian question in Tanzania, cooperatives in
Tanzania, etc. In addition, Sam Maghimbi published about 24 book chapters on topics
related, but not limited to cooperatives in agricultural development, cattle economy, climate
and settlement, peasant cooperatives and the crisis in the rural economy of Tanzania,
Nyerere’s populism in Tanzania, indigenous knowledge systems, rural poverty in Tanzania,
household livelihood strategies in Tanzania, and the moral economy of the peasantry.


Professor Maghimbi has single-handedly written 24 journal articles in both local journals
(e.g., UTAFITI, The African Review, Tanzania Journal Population Studies and Development, etc.), and international publications (Journal of Social Development in Africa, MAWAZO, a
Journal of the Faculties of Arts and Social Sciences (Makerere University), African Study
Monographs (Kyoto University), etc.). He also co-published 4 journal papers (with
sociologists A. Mchomu, F. Tungaraza, and E. W. Dungumaro). In these journal papers,
his research interests related, but were not limited to peasants’ institutions in rural
Tanzania, family planning in Tanzania, population characteristics and resources
utilizations, social policy research and practice in Tanzania, etc.
3. Perpetuation of his Specific Researches and Contribution in Academic Debates
It appears that Sam Maghimbi opted to contribute to anthropological study of the
peasantry, a field which sprung from works produced since mid-1950s. Silverman (1979)
defines peasantry as a people characterized by cultural attributes, inhabiting particular
kinds of communities, and dealing with land husbandry. On the study of peasants, Maghimbi’s contributions seem to surround these major areas: (i) economic status and
livelihoods of peasants and pastoralists in Tanzania, (ii) African moral economy and
complexities of rural communities in Tanzanian perspective (e.g., Maghimbi, 2008,
2011), (iii) The agrarian question and rise and fall of cooperatives in Tanzania
(Maghimbi, 1990; Maghimbi & Foster, 1999; Maghimbi, 2002, 2007, 2010a, 2010b;
Maghimbi et al. 2011; Maghimbi, 2012a), (iv) Cultural diffusion and integration of
innovative traits in rural communities (Maghimbi & Foster, 1992), and (iv) provision of
quality of education in Tanzania (Maghimbi, 2004, 2012b). The contributions in this
issue of the journal appear to engage in the discussions based on individual researches
on these areas.
3.1 The Study of Peasantry and the African Moral Economy or Economy of Affection
Based on empirical, anthropological and sociological researches, the economy and
status of peasants (e.g. Mount Kilimanjaro Bantu) and pastoralists (Tanzanian Maasai)
are well outlined by Sam Maghimbi’s works (Maghimbi, 1991, 1992, 1995a, 1995b).
Apart from other issues, he maintains that adverse land tenure and the abolition of
farmers’ institutions (cooperatives) by Nyerere’s government tended to exert pressure
on peasants success.
In addition, Maghimbi has tremendous impact through his engagement on research and
then publications that revolve around the rural status, peasantry and the link between
African rural societies to Western civilizations. His involvement in the project that led to
publications is significant. For instance, in Contemporary Perspectives on African Moral Economy,
edited by Maghimbi, Kimambo, Hyden and Sugimura (2008), Maghimbi presents how African
communities tend to tie their economies to cultural believes for the purpose of obtaining
communal gains. This allows African rural people, such as the Maasai, to practice moral
economy for the wellbeing of the entire society. In Contemporary Perspectives on Moral
Economy: Africa and Southeast Asia (Maghimbi, Kimambo & Sugimura, 2011), Maghimbi is
convinced that the peasantry economy in Tanzania may not do well because peasants
struggle to survive in adverse conditions. As a result, the peasants of Tanzania fail to turn
into capitalists, as it is the case in Europe (Hyden) or Asia (Sugimura).


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viii JEHS, Volume 3 Nos. 1 & 2, 2014
Maghimbi argues against some ideas on moral economy. For instance, the lack of
serious accumulation of wealth by individuals, due to shared resources in Africa, is one
of the weaknesses that hinder manifestation of capitalist peasantry, as suggested in
moral economy or economy of affection. Maghimbi (2008: 70) categorically argues that “... sharing of water may reduce accumulation of wealth for the large cattle owner who
must share his water with some clansmen in dry season or during drought.”
Another setback is the implementation of the Ujamaa populist policy which, to a great
extent, has facilitated the slow growth of capitalist peasantry in the country. Maghimbi
(2011: 50) argues that “... the populist policies which were implemented from1967 to
the 1980s slowed the growth of peasant capitalism.” Such evolutionary development of
peasant capitalism in Tanzania is ignored by moral economists such as Hyden (ibid: 56).
As regards the economy of affection, Hyden has set out to defend his posits. He agrees
that Maghimbi has been a pioneer of the complexity of rural society in Tanzania, and
accepts that Maghimbi’s (2008, 2011) ideas that there are many gaps in our knowledge
and understanding of where rural society comes from historically, and in which
direction it is evolving. In this issue, Goran has stipulated openly his position and re- defined various concepts about the moral economy in Tanzania.
3.2 Peasantry and Rural Livelihoods in Tanzania
The overall tone of Maghimbi’s publications on peasants and cooperatives in the
country accentuates these major weaknesses: (a) lack of strong institutions to safeguard
peasants’ interests and property; (b) adverse conditions in rural Tanzania that drive
peasants into poor levels of economic development; and (c) lack of strong government
support that leads to low progress of peasantry and cooperatives in the country.
Writing about structural adjustment and land reforms in the co-edited book (Forster &
Maghimbi, 1990), Maghimbi presents the institutional, technical and structural shifts
surrounding peasant agriculture in Tanzania Mainland. He also presents the
revolutionary changes associated with the decline of peasant agriculture, and the rise of
cloves and copra plantations. He insists that poor progress of peasant farming in
Tanzania Mainland is partly a result of the abolition of the institutions in the 1970s and
1980s (Maghimbi & Forster, 1995, 1999). In Zanzibar’s situation, Maghimbi is convinced
that land conflicts result into poor development of cloves and copra peasant farming
(Maghimbi, 2010b).
Based on the state of the art of coffee cultivation in Kilimanjaro area, Maghimbi (2007)
is convinced that poor institutional set-up in most coffee growing areas (e.g., Kagera,
Kilimanjaro) is a setback towards transformation and development of peasantry in the
country. He argues that “... the recent lack of historically strong institutions, such as the
pre-abolition cooperative unions like the KNCU, the BNCU [...], has contributed to the
disinterest that peasants have shown toward coffee in both the Kilimanjaro region and
other places” (Maghimbi, 2007: 81-82). The lack of institution set-up is contended in
other works; mainly on the state of the art of cooperatives in Tanzania (Maghimbi,
2010a, 2010b).


Sam Maghimbi: An Editorial Preview


JEHS, Volume 3 Nos. 1 & 2, 2014 ix
The harsh conditions in rural Tanzania are a major factor behind the impoverishment of
peasants. Maghimbi (2011: 55) states openly that “... peasants have struggled to move
up economically under very harsh conditions.” The harsh conditions mentioned include
shrinking of productive arable land and abolition of cooperatives (Maghimbi, 2011), lack
of strong government support on initiation of cooperatives (Maghimbi et al., 2011), and
political interventions on formation of cooperatives (Maghimbi, 2011). These factors,
together with other reasons, compel peasants to lack interest in cash crop agriculture
(Maghimbi, 2007) and in commercial farming (Maghimbi, 2007).
In addition, Maghimbi seems to have established that cooperatives work properly to
support its members, which in turn assist in mobilizing the country’s development
efforts. In writing about cooperatives and the reduction of poverty of its members,
Maghimbi (2010a: 32) argues that “... there is significant potential for the movement to
help reduce member’s poverty and contribute to the social protection and economic
growth of the country.” However, Maghimbi appears to be highly disappointed by the
financial setbacks and poor economic terrain apparent in Tanzania Mainland. These
adverse circumstances tend to impose negatives on the social wellbeing of Tanzanian
farmers. He argues that world price crises and “... the heavy debt of the crop marketing
cooperatives” are issues bringing down efforts to expand cooperatives for the benefit of
members (Maghimbi, 2010a).
Looking into cooperatives in Tanzania Islands, Maghimbi (2010b: 26) is not satisfied
with the situation of the cooperatives in Zanzibar, as he argues “... democracy is not
likely to flourish in such cooperatives, nor in cooperatives that are initiated on political
criteria.” He contends that “... cooperative members are still very economically and
socially impoverished, and may have no control over their local cooperative because of
limited training in cooperative matters.”
Lastly, in dealing further with the peasants in Tanzania, Maghimbi et al. (2011) situate
the rural farmers within the main framework of the country’s evolution from colonialism
through Ujamaa to liberalization. They argue that continued ‘improper’ utilization of
land resources, guided by some land acts and regulations, has led to conflicts. The
ultimate goal had been the marginalization of the peasants in Tanzania. In order to turn
the situation into the proper outlook, Maghimbi (2011: 54) is convinced that
government’s support of peasants is mandatory: “... if peasant capitalism is to advance
in Tanzania there is need for government to come out openly and promote the vigorous
process of capital formation in agriculture.”
In this volume of the journal, two papers deal with issues surrounding rural livelihoods.
Babeiya, Mateng’e and Kihamba argue that since independence Tanzania has had a
determination to fight poverty amongst its population who mostly live in rural areas. They
argue further that achievements attained include the establishment of basic industries for
agro-processing. Nonetheless, in line with Maghimbi (2010a, b; 2011), they indicate that the
majority of Tanzanians, who live in rural areas and depend on subsistence
farming/agriculture, are still in abject poverty as attested by various reports. Babeiya,


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x JEHS, Volume 3 Nos. 1 & 2, 2014
Mateng’e and Kihamba argue that dreadful planning, mostly based on unempirical studies
(Maghimbi 1992, 1995a, 1995b), cause the stagnation of the peasants’ development.
Mhando takes up ideas from his mentor, Professor Maghimbi (Maghimbi, 2002, 2007), on
coffee production and the state of the art of peasants in the country. Like Maghimbi (1995a, 2007, 2010a), Mhando’s researches on coffee institutions in Tanzania, one of the largest
coffee producers and exporters in Africa, are conducted in Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Mbeya,
Ruvuma, Kagera and Kigoma regions. He argues that liberalization of the coffee industry has
assisted in improving coffee industry and increasing competition among the buyers.
However, the government has left the coffee industry in the hands of private firms,
rendering farmers and their institutions as preys. In line with Maghimbi, he argues strongly
that it is high time the government instruments worked with coffee actors closely to oversee
all matters that are going on within the sector for the benefits of the nation.
3.3 Sam Maghimbi: Sociologists and Anthropologist
Though he writes about peasantry, throughout his academic career Maghimbi has
worked in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Dar es
Salaam. In some cases, he regularly identifies himself as a rural anthropologist, and in
other cases as a liberal sociologist. Scholars identify him in the realism of a sociologist
(Neke 2003) due to his involvement in English vs. Swahili debate in Tanzanian education
cycles (Maghimbi, 2004); or as anthropologist (Schöpperle, 2011: 23) due to his field work
amongst rural communities in Tanzania. Two papers deal with rural communities in Tanzania. Samwel Method writes about the
social identities and the preservation of African culture amongst Tanzanians. In line with
Maghimbi (1990) who argues that Tanzanian societies change, Method accepts that
African societies are passing through changes. Also, in line with Maghimbi (2008) who
underscores the significance of communal ties, Method also accepts that some
philosophies are preserved and even reflected in their literature.
On sociolinguistic perspective, Maghimbi (2004) argues for the expansion of English rather
than Kiswahili as a language of elites. In this line, Lusekelo discusses the way various
loanwords (from English and Kiswahili) are integrated into Tanzanian Bantu languages.
This is in line with Maghimbi (1992, 2012b) who is convinced that innovation is one of the
traits of societies. This being the case, Lusekelo examines how Tanzanian societies
incorporate words for new concepts which are brought through English and Kiswahili.
3.4 Maghimbi’s Contribution to Education Cycles Via Elitist Model
On education cycles, Maghimbi established at least two standpoints. On the one hand,
based on the elitist model, he believes that proper education should be offered through
English as medium of instruction. Maghimbi argues that English, rather than Kiswahili,
should be the language of education. In addition, Maghimbi (2004) describes how
English has become the language of the middle class (the elites) in East Africa. He ties
the language question (English language) to quality education (Neke, 2003); an opinion
that is highly questioned by some linguists (Qorro, 2003) who maintain that education
need be provided through mother tongue, an in the case of Tanzania, Kiswahili.


Sam Maghimbi: An Editorial Preview


JEHS, Volume 3 Nos. 1 & 2, 2014 xi
On the other hand, Maghimbi (2012b) discusses the link that exists between plans for
provision of education, population explosion and investment in education. He establishes
that parents need to contribute financially to the education of their children and should
shy away from the notion that ‘the government will pay’ for the education of every
Tanzanian child. He also suggests that fertility, which allows population explosion, should
be low so as to even households’ income with provision of quality services.
A number of papers in this issue discuss education matters in East Africa. Rodrick Ndomba
presents the changes in the pedagogical approaches to second language teaching and
learning. Arguing against the elitist model, Ndomba contends that in countries like
Tanzania where language teaching is yet to meet expected demands, the methodological
treatment calls for an indepth reflection on the approaches used to teach English language
in schools. He adds that the declining standards of English language among secondary
school students should not be ignored but reciprocated with integrated decisive measures
for redress. The poor English proficiency also informs of English language teacher
preparation and mentorship in educational colleges and universities.
Joyce Asiimwe articulates that the the key pillar on which teaching and learning of
science subjects in Uganda rests is continuous professional development. She
concludes, contra to Maghimbi (2012b) who insists on parents’ involvement, that as a
system, school education is a result of many different and interrelated inputs involving
different actors. Again, she argues that the government is required to be involved in
institutionalizations.
On her part, Monica Kauky analyses primary school dropouts in Rombo district of
Tanzania. In line with Maghimbi (2012b), she argues that basic education has direct
effects on development because it increases agricultural productivity as literate farmers
are well informed and flexible to adopt improved agricultural practices. However, she
found that as the income of households increases, dropout also increases in Rombo
district. While Maghimbi (2012b) insists on parents providing for the education of their
children, Kauky argues that for the purpose of eradicating dropouts in primary schools,
the government and other education stakeholders should collaborate to ensure that all
students who are enrolled in schools make a complete cycle.
The research on management of education in the country by Perpetua Urio reports on
matters related to the relationship between rapid increase of students’ population and
the burden of the responsibilities for heads of schools. She concludes that those who
now take up the positions of school leaders are expected to be not only competent in
their work as teachers, as it is practical in appointment, but also should have integrity,
ethics, character, commitment and trustworthiness to carry out their school managerial
work effectively.
Lastly, Consolata Chua uses Maghimbi’s conceptual apparatus to argue for high quality
secondary education to be attained there must be an effective management of quality
assurance and control mechanism that will ensure the context, inputs and process lead to
quality outputs. Chua contends that this will require the involvement of all stakeholders in


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xii JEHS, Volume 3 Nos. 1 & 2, 2014
the formulation of policies and vision that will lead to the attainment of high quality
education; and providing the education sector with a budget that will facilitate the
provision of adequate and quality materials, human and physical resources etc. She says
once these have been done, then one can embark on sensitizing parents to contribute for
their children’s education (Maghimbi, 2012b) knowing that there is already exists a system
that will ensure that contributions are used for intended purposes.

Published: Mar 30, 2022

Vol. 2 No. 2 (2013)

Published: Mar 30, 2022

Vol. 2 No. 1 (2013)

Published: Mar 30, 2022

Vol. 1 No. 1 (2012)

In the academic world I tend to give too much weight to journals. I like journals to the
point that I may be accused to giving them an over-estimated weight in the process of
learning or acquiring new knowledge. I may be accused of the fallacy of non causa pro
causa. Nevertheless I am not arguing that we can only learn new things from journals. I also
trust and like books but this does not change my faith in journals. My first serious
encounter with journal was in 1980 where I read an article on empiricism (this was article
on Karl R. Popper written by Karel Williams in the journal of Economy and Society Vol. 4, No
3, 1975). Since then I developed more interest in journals after reading 19th century
journals in the School of Oriental and African Studies library and after discovering that
there were even older journals than the 19th century journals. My final baptism into journals
came in 1998 when I encountered many English journals in Hitotsubashi University library
in Tokyo. By this time I had already founded the Tanzania Journal of Population Studies and
Development, which I have been editing since 1995.
I was prompted to initiate the publication of the current journal after I was appointed Dean
of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in University Dar es Salaam in the current
triennium at the University of Dar es Salaam. DUCE was lacking journal and other
publications and I have always argued that a university should first be gauged by it
publications (journals and books) which should reflect scientific research.
As the founder of this journal I must also mention my academic mentors (Professor Isaria N.
Kimambo, Professor Abel Ishumi and Professor Gelase Mutahaba).They have always
encouraged younger scholars to publish in journals. Professor Mutahaba has particularly
encouraged me to publish articles in reputable international journals.
This note is to remind other scholars in DUCE, MUCE (Mkwawa University College of
Education), and the whole University of Dar es Salaam to champion the publication of
international and reputable journals in our university. They can do so by contributing
articles for publication in this and other journals, and by founding more journals.

Published: Mar 28, 2022

Vol. 1 No. 2 (2012)

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Vol. 1 No. 2 (2012)

Published: Mar 28, 2022

Vol. 1 No. 1 (2012)

Published: Mar 28, 2022