Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) https://jehs.duce.ac.tz/index.php/jehs <p>The Journal of Education, Humanities &amp; Science (JEHS) is an interdisplinary international journal devoted to the study of matters related to education, humanities, social science and natural science</p> <p>The main aim of the journal is to gather disseminate under a single cover a wide variety of research and discussing of fundamental concern to all those scholers who have an interest in education, humanities, social science and natural science</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Dar es Salaam University College of Education (DUCE) & University of Dar es Salaam en-US Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 1821-7427 The Construction of Masculinities: Bodaboda Operators and Secondary Schoolgirls’ Pregnancies in Vwawa, Mbozi District, Tanzania https://jehs.duce.ac.tz/index.php/jehs/article/view/106 <p><span style="background-color: #ffffff;">This study examines the influence of the construction of masculinities on the prevalence of secondary schoolgirl pregnancies in Vwawa, Mbozi district, Tanzania. The objective was to understand how the constructions of masculinities in some communities perpetuated certain behaviours that impacted on the human rights of female youth. The study used a qualitative approach and engaged both female and male participants in in-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs), informal talks, and observations. Key findings illustrate how masculinities are constructed through a shared process, influenced by wider social transformations, and reflect the prevailing socio-cultural contexts. In this case, the masculinities assumed by bodaboda [motorcycle taxi] operators may sometimes influence them to subscribe to specific patterns of group behaviour, including those that attract unassuming female youth, making some of them participants of such constructions, and others subdued in silence. The study thus recommends that more investigation be directed on how to deconstruct manipulative masculinities from multiple angles through social and institutional measures. &nbsp;</span></p> Rosemarie N. Mwaipopo Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-12-09 2021-12-09 10 5 The Status of Counselling Services for Students with Visual Impairments in Tanzanian Universities https://jehs.duce.ac.tz/index.php/jehs/article/view/107 <p><span style="background-color: #ffffff;">This article assesses the extent to which counselling services address the special needs of students with visual impairments in Tanzanian universities. The objectives are to: (i) analyse supportive counselling services available for handling social-psychological and educational problems facing students with visual impairments; and (ii) assess the extent to which the available counselling services are capable of addressing social-psychological and educational needs of students with visual impairments. To a great extent, the study was informed by the solution-focused therapy; the cognitive-behavioural therapy; and by the sensory integration therapy. The research employed a multiple case study design with a qualitative approach. Three higher learning institutions with a total of 55 participants were involved in the study. Data collected through interviews, focus group discussions and observation were analysed descriptively, while being organized in line with the objectives of the study. Findings revealed that available counselling services were not adequate and effective to address counselling needs of students with visual impairments. It was concluded that despite the efforts made by university authorities to ensure that counselling services are available to all students, more efforts are needed to ensure that those services address the diverse needs of students. The study recommended for more adjustments in the areas of policy framework; counsellors’ knowledge on disability and techniques for counselling of individuals with visual impairments; counselling environment; accessibility of counselling information; collaboration with other specialists in disabilities; and adequacy of trained counsellors in universities. &nbsp;</span></p> Batista Francis Mgumba Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-12-09 2021-12-09 10 5 Validation of Student Attitudes toward STEM (S-STEM) Survey in Secondary Schools in Tanzania https://jehs.duce.ac.tz/index.php/jehs/article/view/108 <p><span style="background-color: #ffffff;">Tanzania has been taking various initiatives to promote positive attitudes towards, and interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) among students. Such initiatives call for systematic tools to be used to assess students’ attitudes towards STEM so as to inform appropriate interventions. This study investigated the extent to which S-STEM is a valid psychometric instrument for measuring secondary school students’ attitudes towards STEM in the Tanzanian context. Additionally, the study sought to establish whether S-STEM is a valid measure of students’ attitudes towards STEM across gender. Data was gathered from 16 secondary schools. A total of 1,382 Form 2 (Grade 10) students were sampled from four districts in Northern (N = 659) and North-eastern (N = 723) Tanzania. The study adopted four scales from the S-STEM survey that measures students’ attitudes toward STEM, and the 21st century skills. Structural equation modelling and measurement invariance techniques were used to assess the validity of the S-STEM survey in the sampled schools. A structural equation model with 31 out of 37 initially validated items in the S-STEM survey attained moderate to good fit, hence it was valid for measuring both girls’ and boys’ attitudes towards STEM and 21st century skills in Tanzanian secondary schools. Finally, implications for future practices and further research are discussed.</span></p> florence kyaruzi Kinyota Mjege Nyanjiga Rukondo Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-12-09 2021-12-09 10 5 Structural Analysis of Code-switching in Tanzanian Swahili-English Online Telecom Adverts https://jehs.duce.ac.tz/index.php/jehs/article/view/109 <p><span style="background-color: #ffffff;">This study analyses structural configurations of code-switching from Swahili-English online business-related advertisements in Tanzania. The study uses advertisements disseminated by telecom corporations on Facebook. Through the matrix language frame (MLF), and the 4–M models of code-switching, the study discloses the dominance of Swahili as the matrix language (ML), supplying a relatively higher quantity of content morphemes (CM) in clauses; whilst English becomes the embedded language (EL). The Swahili’s supremacy in larger mixed language structures reflects the higher application of Swahili in day-to-day interactions in Tanzania, while English ‘chips in’ at times. In bundle names, which are phrases in structure, the study shows English as the ML; and Swahili as the EL. Further analyses indicate that both early system morphemes (early SMs), which are bound in nature, and bridge late system morphemes which are free in nature, come from Swahili. Similarly, coming from Swahili too, outsider late system morphemes are attached to content morphemes. Generally, Swahili and English partake in mixed language constructions with variations in terms of quantity, types, morpheme properties, and the syntactic properties of linguistic structures.&nbsp;</span></p> Emmanuel Ilonga Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-12-09 2021-12-09 10 5 Assessment of Radiation Exposure Levels from Selected Scrap Metal Stores in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania https://jehs.duce.ac.tz/index.php/jehs/article/view/110 <p><span style="background-color: #ffffff;">This study analyses the radiation exposure rate emanating from scrap metal stores in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, using the ion chamber based survey meter and a Gamma-Scout radiation detector. Two (2) scrap metal stores located at Manzese and Ubungo-External were selected for the investigation. The radiation exposure rates in ?Sv/hr at 20 randomly selected points in each store were determined using a survey meter. More readings were taken at points 100m away from each of the stores to establish the background radiation exposure. From the readings of the survey meter, 3 points with the highest radiation exposure rates from each store were selected. A Gamma–Scout detector was then deployed at each point to measure the radiation exposure rates. The Gamma-Scout measurements were then used to evaluate the annual absorbed dose rate, the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), and the excessive lifetime cancer risk (ELCR). Results showed that the average radiation exposure in the&nbsp; Philipo and Mapinduzi scrap metal stores were 0.467 and 0.4 ?Sv/hr, respectively. These values are both higher than 0.2 ?Sv/hr, the recommended upper limit for radiation exposure rate. Nonetheless, AEDE values resulting from radiation exposures at the Philipo and Mapinduzi stores were respectively 0.286 mSv/yr, and 0.245 mSv/yr. Although these values of AEDE are both below the recommended upper limit of 1 mSv/yr for the public, the annual absorbed dose rates were higher than the recommended limit resulting to higher excessive lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) for workers at these stores, as well as people in their neighbourhoods. The evaluation of ELCR showed that works at Mapinduzi and Philipo scrap metal stores had ELCR values of 1.002 × 10–3 and 0.858 × 10–3, respectively. These ELCR values are higher than the limit of 0.29 × 10–3, indicating higher chances of developing cancer problems for workers at these scrap metal stores. Therefore, the researcher recommends that workers at these stores should observe all recommended radiation safety protocols and residential homes be built at least 500 m away from the scrap metal stores. &nbsp;</span></p> Innocent J. Lugendo Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-12-09 2021-12-09 10 5 Antibacterial and Anti-HIV-1 GP120 Activities of Selected Medicinal Plants https://jehs.duce.ac.tz/index.php/jehs/article/view/111 <p><span style="background-color: #ffffff;">Medicinal plants play an important role in traditional medicine and drug development research because of their numerous bioactivities.&nbsp; However, some concerns have risen on the inefficiencies of such products due to improper use of medicinal plant products, notably when mixed with other traditional remedies. This study evaluates the antibacterial and anti-human immunodeficiency virus 1 glycoprotein 120/CD4 (anti-HIV-1 GP120/CD4) activities of medicinal plants species Sapium ellipticum, Pseudospondias microcarpa, and Capparis erythrocarpos; and their respective combinations effects. Results revealed that aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of S. ellipticum and P. microcarpa had antimicrobial activities against S. aureus (ATCC 25923), E. coli (ATCC 25922), and K. pneumoniae (ATCC 25922); with MIC ranging from 0.31 to 100 mg mL-1. No antibacterial activity was observed for both aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of C. erythrocarpos. An evaluation of the possible interaction with antibacterial activities of aqueous and ethyl acetate crude extracts of S. ellipticum and P. microcarpa revealed no synergic nor antagonistic interaction among them. Furthermore, the study revealed that extracts from all the three plant species and their respective combinations had potential anti-HIV-1 by inhibition on HIV-1 GP120 interactions with CD4 receptors. The evaluation of the inhibition of the extracts combinations against HIV-1 GP120 interaction to CD4 receptors revealed no significant synergic or antagonistic interactions statistically.&nbsp; The results from this study provide scientific information towards appropriate utilization of the plant species in traditional medicine and drug discovery. &nbsp;</span></p> Rose J. Masalu Cyprian B. Mpinda Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-12-09 2021-12-09 10 5 Diversity and Composition of Plant Species in the Geita Gold Mining Catchment Area, Tanzania https://jehs.duce.ac.tz/index.php/jehs/article/view/112 <p><span style="background-color: #ffffff;">A study on the diversity of plant species is of vital importance for the conservation of natural ecosystems that are increasingly being threatened by various anthropogenic activities. Greater diversity makes ecosystems healthier and resilient to stress, thus providing its services on which humans depend. This study aimed to assess the health of the ecosystem around the Geita Gold Mine (GGM) based on the diversity and composition of plant species. Two transects with a total of 14 sampling sites were established where the number of plant species were systematically recorded using nested quadrats. The diversity of species was determined using species richness (S), Shannon-Wiener index (H’), and species evenness (E). The variations in species richness, species diversity, and species evenness between transects were compared using a paired t-test. Cluster analysis to determine similarity index was determined using the Dice similarity (DC) coefficient. The highest index recorded for richness (S), Shannon (H’), and evenness (E) was 32, 3.4 and 0.98, respectively; while the lowest was 12, 2.3 and 0.86, respectively. The Shannon (H’) diversity index obtained (2.3–3.4) indicated the study area is moderately rich in the diversity of plant species as it falls within the range of tropical ecosystems. However, the comparison of the diversity of species for all indices between the transects was not significant (p &gt; 0.05). In addition, cluster analysis for species composition revealed a dendogram with three groups, and two groups had similarity coefficient below 50%. This reflects a considerable higher heterogeneity of the composition of plant species, which is an indication of a moderate healthier ecosystem. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</span></p> mariam mgendi Mkabwa K.L Manoko William J.S. Mwegoha Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-12-09 2021-12-09 10 5