Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) <p>The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (JHSS) at Dar es Salaam University College of Education (University of Dar es Salaam) is an interdisciplinary refereed journal that disseminates original research works, scientific review works, and proposals for methodological shifts in these fields: anthropology, archeology, development studies, economics, fine art, gender issues, general linguistics, geography, history, language studies, language in education, literary studies, performing art, philosophy, political science and public administration, among others. The journal also seeks to publish high-quality creations and innovations of the theoretical frameworks in the disciplines mentioned.</p> <p> </p> Dar es Salaam University College of Education (DUCE) & University of Dar es Salaam en-US Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 1821-7427 Diminutive Noun Class in Bantu Languages: Is Kiswahili Deviant? <p>Noun class prefixes ki-/vi- and ka-/tu- found in Bantu diminutives are widespread despite claims that these affixes are missing in Kiswahili. This study was qualitative, employing data from Kiswahili native speakers, selected literary works of art written in Kiswahili by Kiswahili speakers, and Kiswahili chat messages from WhatsApp forums of Kiswahili speakers. The study reveals that Kiswahili speakers use ka- and tu- affixes in addition to ki-/vi- to form diminutives. These affixes may attach to noun stems as in ka-toto/tu-toto ‘tiny child/tiny children’; or may attach to prefixed stems as pre-prefixes as in ki-m-nazi ‘small/short coconut tree’ and vi-mi-nazi ‘small/short coconut trees. The study findings also reveal that the noun class prefixes trigger agreement on modifiers and verb complexes regardless of their forms as prefixes or pre-prefixes as observed in ki-toto ki-moja ki-zuri ‘one pretty little girl’; or in ka-dada ka-na-miliki-gari ‘pretty little girl owning a car’ where the ki- and ka- on the subject noun stems (-toto and -dada) re-surface as subject markers (SMs) on the modifiers -moja ‘one’ and -zuri ‘pretty’; and on the verb complex -na-miliki ‘owning’. These facts provide strong support for arguing that Kiswahili projects special diminutive affixes in class 12/13 that triggers agreement on other modifiers.</p> <p><a href="https://10.56279/JHSS.v11i2.1">https://10.56279/JHSS.v11i2.1</a></p> Rodrick Gregory Ndomba Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 11 2, Has Feminism Changed Women’s Realities in Africa? An Interrogation of the Poems of Ogundipe and Shire <p>African feminist movements of the 1960’s marked the starting point of debates from the origin of feminism in Africa to its impact on women and the society at large. Literature has from the go been used as a vehicle to reflect the life and its vicissitude on African women. African women writers have used literature as a platform to challenge and re-imagine gender relations within their societies and the continent as a whole. Yet, the question arises: despite half a century’s worth of literary production, has the reality of women, as reflected in literature, changed? This paper thematically interrogates the collection of poems by Molara Ogundipe-Leslie, Sew the Old Days and Other Poems published in 1985, in comparison to Warsan Shire’s Teaching My Mother How to Give Birth of 2011. Both poets are renowned for depicting current issues faced by women and their struggles in patriarchal systems. A thematic analysis allows for the inference of change: do these poets address the same struggles, or has almost thirty-year difference brought about discernible changes?</p> <p> </p> <p><a href="https://10.56279/JHSS.v11i2.2">https://10.56279/JHSS.v11i2.2</a></p> Edith Weseja Bwana Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 11 2, Classroom Discourse in Populated Classes in Tanzania: Questions as Pedagogical Lecturing Strategy at the University of Dar es Salaam <p>This paper reports the findings of a study on the utilisation of questions by lecturers in facilitating teaching and learning during lectures at the University of Dar es Salaam. Three objectives guided the study: (i) identifying the types of questions that lecturers use to facilitate teaching and learning; (ii) establishing the pattern of lecturers’ use of questions; and (iii) determining why lecturers use questions as a discourse strategy to convey information at a sophisticated level of academic rhetoric to facilitate knowledge delivery. Data used to demonstrate this linguistic practice were collected from eight (8) recorded lectures, and interviews with lecturers teaching first-year students in two departments of the University of Dar es Salaam: Political Science and Public Administration, and Sociology and Social Anthropology. Using the discourse analysis (DA) approach, the study identified and analysed the nature of questions as a discourse strategy for lecturers struggling to cope with rising numbers of undergraduate students, and as part of spoken registers generically applied in university teaching in Tanzania. The study found that lecturers used four types of questions: tag, rhetorical, closed-ended and open-ended questions. It further established that lecturers used the four types of questions as pedagogical strategy to stimulate students, involve them, and to manage a class. These four types of questions played a facilitative role in enabling knowledge transfer during lectures with large numbers of undergraduates being baptised to university teaching methods at the ‘deep-end’. Overall, this question pedagogical strategy proved to be useful at the University of Dar es Salaam that continues to witness a steady growth in the numbers of matriculating undergraduate students. This paper, therefore, broadens the understanding on how university lecturers utilise various discourse strategies to enhance knowledge delivery and understanding.<br /><br /></p> <p><a href="https://10.56279/JHSS.v11i2.3">https://10.56279/JHSS.v11i2.3</a></p> Erick Shartiely Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 11 2, Morphosyntactic Analysis of Relative Clause Markers in Chindali <p>This article analyses the basic morphosyntactic features of relative clause markers (RMs) in Chindali, spoken in Tanzania. A qualitative approach was employed with a descriptive research design in the process of generating, analysing data, as well as reporting the findings. The data for the study were collected through text collection. The researcher gathered sentences with relative clauses (RCs) from 10 informants by recording them with their consent, and three (3) written Chindali storybooks. Informants were sampled through the snowball technique. The study revealed that Chindali RCs are marked by free-standing relative pronouns that are bound by agreement. These RMs are classified based on the noun class system of the language. It further revealed that RMs can be formed morphologically with or without class agreement marker (CAM). Chindali RMs with CAM have the morphological structure of ‘CAM + stem-o’, whereas RMs without CAM have the morphological structure ‘stem (C/CC+O)’. RMs without CAM results from deletion process. RMs are distinguished phonologically by the reduplication of the consonants of the CAM(s), followed by a clitic ‘o’ which is the root of the marker. It is also distinguished by the affixation of the glides (G) ‘w’ and ‘y’ in some consonants, as well as the change of the vowel to clitic ‘o’. CAM has the phonological shape CVC (G) V. The relative clauses are introduced syntactically by the language’s relative markers placed at the beginning of a clause linking the RC and a head noun; thus, making the RC an NP syntactic modifier. In Chindali, relative clauses are externally headed postnominal relatives introduced by RMs with a NRC pattern expressing class agreement with the head noun. Semantically, relative markers influence the types of RCs that exist, whether they are restrictive or appositive relatives; and modify things, persons, animals or ideas. The study suggests further research into other aspects of Chindali’s relativization.</p> <p><a href="https://10.56279/JHSS.v11i2.4">https://10.56279/JHSS.v11i2.4</a></p> <p> </p> IMANI MWANG'EKA Chrispina Alphonce Adronis Selestino Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 11 2, Confusions Between English Nominal and Adjectival Forms Among Students at the Dar es Salaam University College of Education: Are they Predictable? <p>This paper examines confusions between English nominal and adjectival forms among students at the Dar es Salaam University College of Education (DUCE). In particular, it establishes consistencies and inconsistencies in the use of English nominal and adjectival forms; and informs pedagogical interventions that can be adopted to redress the situation. Data was collected from a review of selected students’ examination scripts, and then subjected to error analysis in relation to the identified themes. The findings show that students vary greatly in the way they use nominal and adjectival forms such that some errors are consistently predictable, while others are intricately inconsistent and unpredictable. To address the problem, this paper recommends a case-by-case critical analysis of the problems; instead of the general conclusions that students experience problems in language use. Specifically, the paper suggests the need to study the nature, distribution and consistency of the committed errors and/or mistakes so as to come up with effective interventions.</p> <p><a href="https://10.56279/JHSS.v11i2.5">https://10.56279/JHSS.v11i2.5</a></p> <p> </p> Loveluck Philip Muro Benedict Lema Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 11 2, Judicial Approaches in Plagiarism Litigation: Lessons for Universities in East Africa <p>The escalation of plagiarism in universities and subsequent litigations by postgraduate students seeking to challenge universities’ decisions through courts of law worldwide are noticeably increasing. This article reviews trends in plagiarism-related litigations involving postgraduate students in universities in East Africa. The focus is on select universities in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The objective is to determine the approaches that courts of law in the region, and those in other jurisdictions, have adopted in developing legal principles while determining plagiarism-related litigations. The recommendations advanced seek to assist courts in the region to determine cases in accordance with emerging and well-defined legal principles on plagiarism amplified in numerous precedents. The exposition can also inform university authorities to discharge their respective roles more effectively and diligently while dealing with plagiarism-related disciplinary cases. Potential student litigants can also be in a better position to make logical and informed choices with confidence on decisions arrived at by universities.</p> <p><a href="https://10.56279/JHSS.v11i2.6">https://10.56279/JHSS.v11i2.6</a></p> Hamudi Majamba Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 11 2, Sexism in Tanzanian Secondary School English Language Textbooks: Investigation of Adjective Attributions <p>This research paper investigates sexism in Tanzania’s secondary school English language textbooks with a focus on the adjectives used to describe women and men in textbooks published between 2005 and 2014. The paper aims to reveal how women and men are described, uncover gender ideologies conveyed by adjective descriptions and characterise the gender ideologies as hegemonic or deviant. Data were collected through a critical textual review of eight (8) textbooks. This paper is anchored on the Feminist CDA theory; and Fairclough’s three-dimensional framework was used as the analytic tool whereby data were described, interpreted and explained. The findings indicate that women and men are perceived differently in terms of number and types of adjectives attributed to them despite some similar attributions. In particular, there are more adjectives describing men than women. It is also found out that women are described mostly by physical property adjectives than other personalities. The study also revealed that some ideologies conveyed by adjectives are hegemonic, while others are deviant. Generally, the adjectives used to represent women and men in Tanzania’s secondary English language textbooks portray a sexist attitude about women and men since many adjectives still indicate gender stereotypes despite some positive changes.</p> <p><a href="https://10.56279/JHSS.v11i2.7">https://10.56279/JHSS.v11i2.7</a></p> <p> </p> Fides Sylvanus Pangani Antoni Keya Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 11 2, Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Non-Communicable Diseases among Students and Staff at the Dar es Salaam University College of Education in Tanzania <p>Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are among the major public health problems facing the world today. Despite contributing to over half of all deaths worldwide, and being a major challenge in low- and middle-income countries, NCDs have received less attention. In Tanzania, studies focusing on the assessment of comprehensive knowledge of NCDs are lacking. This study aims to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of the Dar es Salaam University College of Education (DUCE) community on selected NCDs. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices on selected NCDs. The study involved both students and staff at the DUCE. A descriptive analysis was adopted for the quantitative data collected through structured questionnaires. The study findings show that the general knowledge of the DUCE community about some selected NCDs was generally high. However, there was a very low level of knowledge about risk factors, early symptoms and preventive measures. Regarding risk factors, a very small proportion of students (1.6%) and staff (3.1%) consumed tobacco products. Only 75 (13.1%) of students and 70 (36.5%) of staff consumed alcohol. The intake of fruits and vegetables among the community was insufficient. About 493 (86%) of the students and 135 (70.3%) of the staff added salt or salty sauce to their meals. As for physical activities, 234 (40.8%) of the students and 99 (51.6%) of the staff reported that they ran or participated in games and sports for at least one day in a week. The study concludes that while generally there is a high level of knowledge about NCDs, there is a very low level of knowledge about risk factors, early symptoms and preventive measures. The study underlines the need to increase the awareness of the DUCE population on risk factors associated with NCDs, early signs and preventive measures that people should take to prevent NCDs in the future.</p> <p><a href="https://10.56279/JHSS.v11i2.8">https://10.56279/JHSS.v11i2.8</a></p> Stephen Maluka Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 11 2,