Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) <p>The Journal of Education, Humanities &amp; Science (JEHS) is an interdisplinary International Journal devoted to the study of matters related to Education, Humanities, Social Science and Natural Science.</p> <p>The main aim of the Journal is to gather and disseminate under a single cover a wide variety of research and discussion of fundamental concern to all those scholers who have an interest in Education, Humanities, Social Science and Natural Science.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Dar es Salaam University College of Education (DUCE) & University of Dar es Salaam en-US Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 1821-7427 The Factors Facilitating and Challenges Facing Community-based Interventions in Improving Antenatal Care in Rural Tanzania <p>The improvement of antenatal care has remained a topical global concern as signalled by <br>maternal deaths, which have remained unacceptably high, especially in low- and middleincome countries. In response to this concern, community-based interventions through <br>women’s groups have been implemented to improve antenatal care; and have shown <br>promising results in rural settings. However, factors contributing to the success or failure <br>of these interventions vary across geographical settings, thereby necessitating areaspecific considerations. This paper sets out to unveil significant facilitators and barriers to <br>the implementation of women’s group interventions in Tanzania. A qualitative case study <br>design was employed involving interviews, focus group discussions, and documentary <br>review in Kilolo and Mufindi districts. Eighty-six participants were interviewed and six <br>small focus group discussions were conducted. Findings show that several factors <br>facilitated the implementation of community-based interventions. These included<br>recruitment and selection of the women’s groups, readiness among the women’s groups, <br>support of the local administrative systems, and inclusive monitoring and evaluation <br>process. On the other hand, the implementation process was constrained by insufficient <br>logistical supplies, multiple workloads, and the desire for allowances. It is concluded that <br>increased uptake and sustainability of antenatal care can potentially be attained through <br>an understanding of both facilitators and barriers during the planning, development and <br>implementation of the interventions of women’s groups. <br>Keywords:&nbsp;&nbsp;<br><br></p> Stephen Maluka Chakupewa Joseph Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 10 4 Stone Monuments of Northern Lake Eyasi Basin at Olpiro, Oldogom and Olbili Sites in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania: Revisited Perspectives <p>Despite the outstanding contribution of Lake Eyasi Basin to human origins and cultural <br>development from the middle stone age (MSA) to the historic period, other <br>archaeological occurrences in the area with outstanding cultural values such as burial<br>cairns, stone enclosures, megalithic walls, and dolmens have remained less emphatic <br>among scholars. Although these are widespread across the cultural landscape of the <br>region, yet they have attracted little scientific attention. These stone monuments were <br>first reported in the 1960s and 1970s, and precisely correlated to the agricultural <br>terraces of Engaruka, the astonishing late iron age agricultural scheme of northern <br>Tanzania. This study intended to identify new monumental sites, establish the <br>chronological framework of human adaptation in the Lake Eyasi Basin, and provide <br>scholarly information that can be fully understood at different levels: local people, <br>policymakers, and scientific communities. Results from an archaeological survey at <br>Olbili, Olpiro, and Oldogom villages in the northern edge of the Lake Eyasi Basin shows <br>a sustained occupation of these sites from the Neolithic to iron age (IA) periods. <br>Nevertheless, detailed archaeological, architectural, radiometric dating, and <br>paleoecological investigations are encouraged for coherent declarations.<br><br></p> Musa S. Mwitondi Albert S. Mjandwa Lenin Felician Pastory M. Bushozi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 10 4 The Effects of Household Shocks on Child Nutrition Status in Tanzania <p>The main objective of this paper is to examine the effects of household shocks on the <br>nutrition status of children between 0–59 months in Tanzania. The study employed the <br>national panel survey data of Tanzania collected in three waves: 2008/09, 2010/11, and <br>2012/13. The study used the panel random-effects probit model to estimate the effects <br>of household shocks on child nutrition status, measured by binary variables: stunting, <br>wasting, and underweight. Findings indicated that weather shocks increase the <br>probability of a child being stunted and underweight. Moreover, the results revealed <br>that food price rise shocks and the death of a family member increase the probability <br>of child-stunting. In addition, the findings indicated that food assistance reduces the <br>probability of a child being stunted and underweight. These findings suggest the need <br>for the government to improve food assistance programs to reach many people,<br>especially the poor and marginalized households in a period of shocks. In addition, <br>agricultural policies that aim at increasing productivity, such as irrigation schemes,<br>should also be enhanced to enable food availability in the country; and protect children <br>from malnutrition even after the occurrence of shocks.<br><br></p> MONICA SEBASTIAN KAUKY Martin Julius Chegere Razack Bakari Lokina Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 10 4 Market-Driven Rice Farming and Water Use Change in Mbarali District from the Mid-1980s to the 2010s <p>This paper examines the effects of market-driven rice farming on the use of water in <br>Mbarali District from about the mid-1980s to 2010s. It specifically traces the development <br>of both peasant and state rice farming and their subsequent effects on water use in the <br>district. The study is essentially qualitative, although in some cases it uses quantitative <br>data to validate its arguments. Thus, it adopts political economy and historical ecology <br>theories to understand changes brought by market-driven rice farming; and the ways <br>peasants struggled to accommodate those changes in their agricultural practices. The area <br>of study included six villages, namely Chimala, Mkombwe, Rujewa, Songwe-Imalilo, <br>Ubaruku and Utengule-Usangu, in Mbeya region, Tanzania. Data of the study is drawn <br>from oral interviews in these villages in three phases between 1999 and 2020; and from <br>an examination of earlier studies (secondary data) and archival documents that provided <br>primary data on government policies, ordinances and decisions. The findings show that <br>the expansion of market-driven rice farming in Mbarali from 25,906ha in 1985 to 45,000ha <br>in 2000 and 65,547ha in 2016 was in response to the economic liberalization drive which <br>began in the mid-1980s. This expansion of market-driven rice farming during that period <br>symbolized the response of the peasants to the new conditions created by the <br>liberalization of the economy. Also, the expansion produced important changes such as <br>prolonged use of water for irrigation, the general calendar change in the water use, etc.,<br>which affected the use of water, causing the drying up of some rivers, evolution of intense <br>struggles over water, downstream water scarcity, etc.<br><br></p> George K. Ambindwile Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 10 4 Adaptation versus Adoption of Sounds from Kiswahili into Chimalaba <p>This paper describes an exciting case of adaptation versus adoption of sounds from <br>Kiswahili loanwords integrated into Chimalaba. The data were collected through <br>interviews and targeted elicitation of lexical loanwords containing borrowed sounds. <br>The analysis of adaptation and adoption of Kiswahili sounds into Chimalaba was guided <br>by the assimilation theory (AT), which holds that speakers of the borrowing language <br>always change the phonological patterns of loanwords so as to fit into the system of <br>their language. The findings indicate that phonological integration of Kiswahili <br>loanwords into Chimalaba displays two types of conformity: conformity to the <br>phonological structure of the recipient language (RL); and conformity to the sociohistorical pressure exerted by the source language (SL). In the former, speakers adapt <br>foreign sounds to preserve the structure of the RL, and in the latter speakers adopt <br>foreign sounds in response to socio-historical pressure put forth by the SL. Thus, <br>adaption and adoption are used concurrently in integrating foreign sounds in Chimalaba <br>so as to serve two different purposes: adaptation serves for structural preservation, and <br>adoption responds to socio-historical pressure exerted by the SL on the RL. <br><br></p> Hamisi Amani Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 10 4 The Significance of Word Order Variation in Iraqw Sentences <p>This paper investigates the significance of word order variation in Iraqw, a Southern <br>Cushitic language found in Tanzania. The paper is based on the communicative <br>approach in analysing the variation of word order beyond the grammatical point of <br>view. By scrutinizing the syntax of Iraqw, this paper hopes to make a welcome <br>contribution to the comparative syntax of Cushitic languages scattered across the <br>northern sub-Saharan area (Sudan, e.g., Beja; Ethiopia, e.g., Oromo; Somalia, e.g., <br>Somali; Eritrea, e.g., Afar; and Tanzania, e.g., Gorwa, Alagwa, and Burunge). The primary <br>data presented in this paper were collected from a sample of Iraqw native speakers <br>living in Mbulu. Supplementary data came from Iraqw documentary materials. The <br>findings revealed new generalizations about Iraqw syntax. Firstly, although the basic <br>word order of the Iraqw sentence is SOV1<br>, this order is not always fixed in that it is <br>affected by the communicative needs of the communicator. Secondly, grammatical <br>agreement between the arguments and the verb enables flexible positioning of <br>elements to reflect their information status in the discourse. Thus, either the subject <br>or object and the verb can be re-ordered. Thirdly, the re-ordering of elements follows <br>the rule that communication always develops from what is known (topic) to what is <br>unknown (comment) in the context. The topic thus tends to occur in sentence-initial <br>position, and the comment is placed in sentence-final position. It could be concluded <br>that permutation of elements in the sentences is therefore determined by pragmatic <br>and informational criteria. <br><br></p> Chrispina Alphonce Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 10 4 The Alternate Wetting and Drying Irrigation and the Bioaccumulation of Selected Micronutrients in Harvested Rice Grains <p>Alternate wetting and drying irrigation (AWDI) is a water saving strategy in rice farming. <br>However, its impact on mineral bioaccumulation in the grain is not well understood. Thus, <br>this study investigated the impact of AWDI on bioaccumulation of Zn, Se, Mn and Cu in <br>rice grains. Six water regimes involving continuous flooding where water was maintained <br>at 2cm above the soil, and delaying irrigation until water reaches 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40cm <br>below the soil surface, were employed. The concentration of Zn, Mn and Se in the soil <br>ranged between 2.05–6.9, 3.4–9.1 and 0.13–0.16 mgkg-1<br>, respectively. In the harvested <br>rice grains, the concentration of Zn, Mn, Cu and Se ranged between 8.20–11.90, 1.90–<br>3.50, 1.90–3.10 and 0.10–0.70 mgkg-1<br>, respectively. These concentrations were not <br>phytotoxic to plants. Re-flooding after every 2–5 days increased Zn, Mn and Cu <br>bioaccumulation in rice grains by 65, 151 and 124% respectively, but reduced Se <br>bioaccumulation by 95%. Re-flooding after every 8–12 days reduced bioaccumulation of <br>all micronutrients in rice grains. Bioaccumulation factors indicated that Zn was absorbed <br>and subsequently accumulated in rice grains. The estimated dietary daily intakes for Zn, <br>Mn and Cu were higher in rice grown under mild AWDI, implying that AWDI can be used <br>as a strategy to increase these micronutrients in human diets through rice consumption. <br><br></p> Charles O. Joseph Emmanuel M. Sangu Stephen S. Nyandoro Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 10 4 Model Fitting and Analysis of the Cost-effectiveness of Control Strategies in the Threatened Wildebeest-Lion Prey-Predator System in the Serengeti Ecosystem <p>In this paper, a wildebeest-lion prey-predator model for the Serengeti ecosystem was <br>adopted from a previous publication. The threats to the model system were poaching, <br>retaliatory killings, and droughts. The proposed threat control strategies for these <br>threats were anti-poaching patrol to mitigate poaching, construction of strong bomas <br>to reduce retaliatory killings, and construction of dams to mitigate the impact of <br>droughts. Data on the lion population density in the Serengeti ecosystem were used <br>to fit the model by using the maximum likelihood method. The impact of different <br>control strategies for a period of five years was analysed using the incremental costeffectiveness ratio (ICER). An analysis of the dynamical behaviour of the adopted <br>model was carried out. Results indicated that the model fitted well the data and the <br>construction of dams using the ICER was the most cost-effective strategy. <br>Nevertheless, at the implementation level, the management may decide to adopt <br>either of the two programs.<br><br></p> Thadei Sagamiko Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 10 4 Assessment of the Relationship between Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soil and Tea Leaves Grown at Amani in Tanga Region by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) <p>Determination of the concentration of heavy metals in tea leaves is important in assessing <br>its quality for human consumption. This study aimed to assess the relationship between <br>the concentration of heavy metals in soil and tea leaves at Kwamkoro tea plantation in <br>Amani, Tanga. The soil and tea leaves samples were analysed by using the Energy <br>Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. The results of heavy metals mean <br>concentrations in soil were Cr (185.65 ± 27.91 µg/g), Mn (341.15 ± 24.41 µg/g), Ni (25.6 <br>± 3.27 µg/g), Cu (21.71 ± 2.33 µg/g), Zn (41.29 ± 5.27 µg/g), As (1.25 ± 0.17 µg/g), Cd <br>(2.47 ± 0.53 µg/g), Hg (1.06 ± 0.21 µg/g) and Pb (17.65 ± 2.35 µg/g). Mean concentration <br>of As and Cd in soil of Amani, Tanga were 1.25 and 2.47 times greater than the maximum <br>permissible limit values for agricultural soil set by the Tanzania Bureau of Standards. The <br>mean concentrations of heavy metals in tea leaves were Cu (15.19 ± 0.62 µg/g), As (0.03 <br>± 0.03µg/g), Cd (1.88 ± 0.68 µg/g), Hg (0.10 ± 0.04 µg/g), and Pb (0.41 ± 0.11 µg/g). The <br>mean concentrations of Cu, As, Hg and Pb were below, while that of Cd was above the <br>limit value of safety standard set by the WHO and FAO. The study concluded that, the <br>strong positive correlation observed between heavy metals in soil and tea leaves implies <br>that there is strong relationship between the concentration of heavy metals in the soil and <br>those found in tea leaves. Therefore, the application of phosphates fertilizer and <br>agrochemicals must be monitored in Amani tea plantation because it increases the <br>concentrations of heavy metals in both soil and tea leaves. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Mohamed Mazunga Masasi Kamanyola Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 10 4 Determination of Angular Distribution of Bremsstrahlung Spectral Temperature Measured at the Centre Position of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source <p>This study aims at determining azimuthal angular distribution of bremsstrahlung spectral <br>temperature measured from 28-GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS),<br>using data obtained from the Busan centre of Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI). <br>Bremsstrahlung photons of the angular distributions from 28-GHz ECR Ion source at the <br>KBSI were measured in three azimuthal angles for the first time. Three round type NaI(TI) <br>scintillation detectors were used to measure the angular distributions of the <br>bremsstrahlung photons emitted at the centre position of the ECRIS at the same time. <br>Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4 package was performed to take the geometrical <br>acceptance and energy-dependent detection efficiency into account due to large nonuniformity in the material budget. True bremsstrahlung energy spectra from the 28-GHz <br>ECR ion source were obtained using the inverse-matrix unfolding method. The unfolding <br>method was based on a full geometry of the Geant4 model of the ECRIS plasma. Based on <br>the results obtained, it was observed that the maximum spectral temperature was at angle <br>30o of the NaI(TI) detector D1 for all three detector configurations. It is interesting to <br>observe that the spectral temperature for detector D1 at an angle 30o<br>is in coincidence <br>with one of the maximum angles of the ECRIS plasma shape. <br><br><br></p> Mwingereza J. Kumwenda Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 10 4