Vol 8, No 1 (2019)

This special issue in Education and Adolescent Students’ Well-being is a constellation of five papers highlighting various issues in the education field, and issues of concern to adolescent students’ development and well-being. In particular, the issue has two papers on online violence and sexual exploitation among adolescent students in secondary schools. There are also two papers in teacher education focusing on the use of technology in science and mathematics teaching, as well as a comparative analysis on teacher professional development—the case of China and Tanzania. Assessment and feedback have also been delineated in one of the five papers. The papers were first reviewed by the guest editor and later sent to peer reviewers who provided scholarly comments and recommendations for the suitability of the paper for publication consideration in a special issue. The final review and comments were provided by the guest and chief editors, and authors responded to most of the comments from the reviewers and the editors. However, the authors remain liable for the content of their papers. Rapid advancements in information and communication technology in terms of the internet, social media, and cellphones have come with both benefits and disadvantages. The paper by Dr Hezron Z. Onditi and Prof. Jennifer Shapka examines the prevalence of cyberbullying and cybervictimization, and the associated predictors among Tanzanian secondary school adolescents. The authors find that cyberbullying is an emerging problem of concern among Tanzanian secondary school adolescents who have access to the internet and cellphones. They further show that more time spent online, use of devices in a private location, and sharing devices are associated with increased risks in engaging in cyberbullying others and for being victimized online. They conclude that technology is ubiquitous, thus, the effects transcends physical geographical boarders; calling for holistic education and awareness programmes on responsive use of the internet and cellphones among children and adolescents. The use of technology in teaching and learning has currently gained popularity among educators and researchers. The paper by Dr Ayoub Cherd Kafyulilo and Dr Frank Tilya examines the effectiveness of learning technology by design in the development of inservice science teachers’ competencies of integrating technology in science and mathematics teaching in Tanzania. In a pre- and post-intervention assessment of teachers’ technological and pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), the authors find a significant improvement of teachers’ technology integration competencies among teachers who participated in technology-integrated design lessons in design teams. This study further shows that students also reported a high level of satisfaction and mastery of lessons and difficult concepts in science and mathematics that were taught using technology. The authors conclude that teachers’ collaboration to design technology-integrated lessons is an important and effective approach worth adapting in teachers’ professional development. Assessment and evaluation are important components in teaching and learning. Dr Florence Kyaruzi researched students’ mathematics self-efficacy and use of teachers’ feedback in improving mathematics performance in secondary schools in Tanzania. Using structural equation modelling and focus group discussions, the author finds that despite poor mathematics performance trends in Tanzania, students report high levels of mathematics self-efficacy and perceptions about the use of teachers’ feedback. The author further reveals that students’ self-efficacy and use of teacher feedback jointly predicted their mathematics performance to some extent. Finally, the paper recommends intervention and education programmes focusing on improving students’ mathematics self-efficacy and in using teachers’ feedback. The paper by Dr Mjege Kinyota, Dr Patrick Kavenuke and Dr Rehema J. Mwakabenga is a comparative study that explores professional development of teachers in Tanzania by drawing lessons from Chinese school-based professional learning communities (SBPLCs). They indicate that Chinese schools have made significant achievements in SBPLCs by supporting teachers’ collaborative learning and research in rural and urban areas. The authors relate the Chinese success with a strong government support and commitments on the part of teachers and school leaders. They conclude by pointing out six key major lessons that Tanzania can learn from China: formalizing professional learning at school level; developing an explicit teacher professional development policy; allocating specific time for teachers’ professional learning in schools; offering financial support to schools for teacher professional learning; encouraging individual teacher initiatives to engage in professional learning; and enhancing available professional learning activities. Child sexual abuse and its associated negative consequences has been an issue of global agenda. The paper by Dr Budeba Petro Mlyakado explores sexual exploitation among adolescent students in Tanzania. The author reveals that adolescents appear to engage in transactional sex, an exploitative sexual relationship, including sodomy due to economic hardships, lust for fashionable materials, and vulnerability. This study further associates sexual exploitation among adolescent students with various negative outcomes, including poor academic performance, school dropout, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), unintended pregnancies, and illegal abortions. Mlyakado concludes by pointing out challenges of giving services to adolescent victims of sexual exploitations including socio-cultural norms, lack of cooperation between service providers, secrecy, and the legal framework. This special issue has been published with support from the Dar es Salaam University College of Education. The Editorial Board is thankful to the DUCE management for this great support. Again, we would like to thank all authors who contributed to this issue but their papers could not meet the expectations of reviewers and the Editorial Board for publication in the JEHS. Mega congratulations to the authors of the five papers who made this special issue a reality. Thank you, our esteemed readers, and all those who consider the JEHS as an outlet for their scholarly work.


Vol 6, No 2 (2017)

Special Issue on International Conference on Gender Issues in Higher Learning Institutions: An Editorial Preview

1. Introduction
This special issue of the Journal of Education, Humanities and Sciences (JEHS) is dedicated to
papers emanating from the first International Conference on Gender in Higher Learning
Institutions which was held on 26th–29th April 2017 at the Dar es Salaam University College
of Education (DUCE) in Tanzania. A few selected talks that were delivered at this
conference have been developed into journal articles published in this volume. The main
intent of the conference was to explore and reflect on gender issues, and on how best to
redress them in the context of higher learning institutions (HLIs); with the aim of realizing
the human rights and gender equality as speculated in various national and international
instruments. As shown later in this preview, the contents of the selected articles reflect
fully on this general aim.
An inaugural ceremony to the conference was held on the 27th April 2017 at the Dar es
Salaam University College of Education. The invited Guest of Honour was the Vice-
President of Tanzania, Hon. Samia Suluhu Hassan. Her speech was delivered on her behalf
by the Minister of Health, Community Development, Gender, Seniors and Children, Hon.
Ummy Ally Mwalimu (MP). In the speech, policy issues surrounding the education of a
female-child were profoundly articulated. In addition, Hon. Ummy Ally Mwalimu (MP)
urged the scholars and audience of the conference to underscore the importance of
gender equality and equity in HLIs.
Participants in the conference came from a wide range of HLIs in the world. From the United
States of America, scholars from Michigan State University delivered keynote talks on
gender issues in the United States, Tanzania and Malawi. Some keynote speakers came from
Trinity College Dublin, National University of Ireland and Dublin City University in Ireland.
In addition, researchers from University College Dublin presented their findings on gender
issues in Tanzania and Ireland. Matters surrounding higher education for girls in rural China
was presented Zhe Li. Alelign Aschale from Ethiopia talked about intergender violence in
higher education in Ethiopia. Kenyan scholars participated in the conference and delivered
presentations, some of which are included in this special issue. In Tanzania, scholars from
many institutions of higher education participated, but mainly from the University of
Dodoma, University of Dar es Salaam, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Mwalimu Nyerere
Memorial Academy and St. Augustine University of Tanzania.

2. The Articles
The contents of the articles contained in this special issue are consonant with the specific
objectives of the conference. The conference wanted to explore examples of good
practices in exploiting the power of higher education in promoting the equalities and
rights of women and men. The power of higher institutions begins with its pedagogical
contents. In this spirit, a team of researchers from the Sokoine University of Agriculture namely Judith S. Kahamba, Fatihiya A. Massawe and Ernest S. Kira—delivered a talk on the contents of the pedagogy of HLIs. Their article provides an argument that the teaching and learning environment in HLIs is not only gender-imbalanced, but also it is not well known on whether instructors are aware of gender sensitive teaching techniques; and to

what extent do they mainstream gender sensitive teaching practices in their daily
teaching practices. Consequently, they offer such a recommendation as the management
of HLIs should continue with awareness campaign and training workshops to academic
staff on how to apply gender sensitive teaching techniques through gender policy
implementation committees. In addition, they recommend that there is a need to develop
a gender policy implementation strategy to guide gender responsive teaching (GRT)
mainstreaming in curriculum and teaching.
Another scholar, Rosemary J. Mukama, presented research findings on practices that will
result into positive strategies towards fighting sextortion in HLIs in Tanzania. The main
discussion surrounds evidence given on sextortion, which entails sexual abuse resulting
from the misuse of power by an individual who uses authority to sexually exploit another
human being. In addition, sextortion involves issues related to corruption in HLIs. One of
the mechanisms suggested Mukama involves civil justice mechanism by way of civil
litigation or by way of quasi adjudication. According to her, civil litigation entails court
proceedings in a civil nature that has to be proven on the balance of probabilities.
Another specific objective of the conference was to explore critical factors and challenges
that lead to gender-based inequalities in the context of higher education. The article by
Ignatia Mligo presents the findings on gender differences in educational outcomes by
exploring views from student-teachers in higher education institutions in Tanzania. The
paper addresses issues related to the extent and conducts in which gender differences in
educational achievement are issues of concern in higher education institutions. Mligo
concludes that there is need to initiate research with a gender perspective on higher
education institutions to produce responsive and relevant gender policies, accelerate
their dissemination, and translate them into tangible actions.
Moreover, the conference was an arena for providing opportunity for gender activists
from higher education institutions to share experiences. Two articles from Kenya
provide the discussion on the expression of gender-related issues in literary works.
First, Mikhail Gromov’s article sets out to demonstrate the prominence of the feministic
mindset in recent novels of Kenyan writers of Swahili expression. It tries to demonstrate
that the novelists, regardless of their gender, are advocating the principles of equality,
parity and harmony in gender relationship as a constructive standpoint for the
development of the Kenyan nation. Second, Alina Rinkanya surveys the depiction of
resistance to gender-based violence in Kenyan women’s novel. Its aim is to assert that
in the novels written in the second half of the last century (1960s–1990s), the heroines
were mostly exerting passive resistance to the violent actions of their male
counterparts. The conclusion drawn from the novels surveyed is that feminists, and
among them women writers, are often accused by the modern adepts of patriarchy of
trying to establish ‘female dominance’ in the modern world. The survey of the novels
testified that feminists and women writers pursue quite a different aim. Consequently,

by depicting in their novels cases of adequate resistance to inadequate actions on the
male part, the women authors, whose heroines are presented (mostly) as role models
for the readers, offer certain inspiring examples.
Furthermore, the conference wanted to identify strategic opportunities to engage
national partners—including, but not limited to, gender-specific institutions—to
promote gender-based equality. In line with this objective, Margaret J. Bilinga engaged
her findings in this theme. Her article addresses the mechanisms and strategies in which
students engage in learning sexuality education. She opines that these mechanisms and
strategies are highly dependent on students’ attitudes towards sexuality education. Her
research explored students’ views on integrating sexuality education in HLIs. Such a study
is geared to inform the public on the best practices in the provision of sexuality education
in Tanzania. In the conclusion, Bilinga states that findings revealed that the majority of
students supported the integration of sexuality education in HLIs in Tanzania; one of the
benefits being that it will provide them with proper sex information that will in turn help
them from indulging in unprotected sex, and also protect them from contacting STIs.
The last specific target of the conference was to identify gender related needs particularly
with regard to capacity building of gender activists in higher education institutions.
Consolata L. Chua approached this specific target by examining the state-of-the-art of
students’ leadership in HLIs in Tanzania. Specifically, Chua explored opportunities for
empowering female students to successfully take on leadership roles in HLIs. The study
found that female students are generally viewed as lacking confidence to come forward and
contest for leadership positions; rather they prefer contesting for assistantship positions
under male student leaders. On the basis of this research, she opines that widening
participation in higher education has captured the attention of the nations, and is now an
international policy priority. As such, HLIs should implement special steps to abolish all
forms of harassment of female students to widen participation of female students’
leadership in HLIs.

3. Conclusion
With this rich scholarly work on gender, we hope that our esteemed readers, and of
course the audience of the conference, will benefit from the findings of these articles and
research-based discussions.
Prof. William A.L. Anangisye – Chief Editor
Dr. Amani Lusekelo – Associate Chief Editor
Dr. Julius Mbuna – Associate Chief Editor

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