Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) <p>The Journal of Education, Humanities &amp; Science (JEHS) is an interdisplinary International Journal devoted to the study of matters related to Education, Humanities, Social Science and Natural Science.</p> <p>The main aim of the Journal is to gather and disseminate under a single cover a wide variety of research and discussion of fundamental concern to all those scholers who have an interest in Education, Humanities, Social Science and Natural Science.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> en-US (Journal of Education, Humanities and Sciences, Dar es Salaam University College of Education (DUCE)) (IT Department) Tue, 06 Jul 2021 10:54:21 +0000 OJS 60 Trends and Causes of Socio-economic Inequality In Teenage Pregnancy and Childbearing in Tanzania <p>The paper analyses the trends and causes of socioeconomic inequalities in teenage <br>pregnancy and childbearing in Tanzania using the 2004/05, 2009/10 and 2015/16 <br>Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) data. The analysis of trends and <br>causes of socioeconomic-inequality uses a representative sample of 7,450 teenagers<br>who were pregnant or had a child during the survey. Teenagers were obtained from a <br>multi-stage sampling technique. Erreygers Index (EI) and its decomposition are used in <br>the analyses. The EI indicates a significant increase in the magnitude of inequalities in <br>teenage pregnancy and childbearing over time. Further, there exists a pro-poor <br>inequality in teenage pregnancy and childbearing. A decomposition analysis revealed <br>that the major contributors to teenage pregnancy and childbearing includes early <br>marriage, early sexual debut, and teen education. The lack of social and economic <br>capital provides a possible explanation for the observed results. We thus argue for <br>compulsory secondary education and reproductive health education, as well as <br>addressing wealth inequalities, to redress the situation in Tanzania.<br>Keywords: teenage pregnancy, childbearing Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey, <br>decomposition analysis, Tanzania</p> Magashi Joseph , Asela Miho Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Differences and Consumer Purchase-decision: The Moderating Effect of Income Levels among Mall-Consumers in Dar es Salaam - Tanzania <p>The field of gender has recently gained acceptability across the globe. While the <br>concept of gender development has been widely studied, the link between gender <br>attributes, income and consumer purchase-decision at the market place requires <br>an extensive assessment. This work explores how income level moderates the <br>relationship between gender differences and consumer purchase-decision. A crosssectional research design was adopted and data were collected from 218 sampled <br>consumers across 11 retail stores in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Structural equation <br>modelling (SEM) was used to test the conceptual framework. Findings revealed a <br>moderating effect of income in the relationship between gender differences and <br>consumer decision-making. Therefore, the study concluded that although <br>consumers across gender might not be able to purchase what they want because of <br>income, their preferences will not change: they will wait for their income to <br>purchase their substitutes. It was recommended that while designing sales <br>strategies, businesses should have a clear understanding of gender differences and <br>income levels as they influence consumers’ purchase-decisions and organisational <br>sales performance.<br><br></p> Winnrose Elifuraha Mmari, Isaac Kazungu Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding Gender Inequalities in Households: Anecdotal Encounters by Practitioners in Kenya and Tanzania <p>Women in developing countries face several challenges related to gender inequality <br>through experiences in limited access to education, labour market, and finances. Deeprooted social and cultural practices often devalue the notion of being a woman, and create <br>limitations for women’s life opportunities and personal empowerment. The overall <br>objective of this paper is to reflect on ways of effectively engaging with informal <br>settlement communities in Kenya and Tanzania, in a way that elicits information that is <br>useful to the community and to research. The paper is part of a larger research project <br>targeted at couples living in a household as participants, and identified workshops as a <br>useful approach in engaging with the targeted participants. To ensure the workshops <br>were designed in a practical manner, opinions of local practitioners were sought. This <br>paper reflects on those consultations, based on three key questions about the design, <br>structure, and modalities of the workshops. The methods used for the consultations were <br>interviews, which were held among 7 practitioners across the two countries. The findings <br>indicated that it was necessary to show sensitivity in the design and structure of the <br>workshops, as well as to ensure that the modalities should be open to discussions of <br>topics that were a priority to the participants. The paper concludes that the design, <br>structure, and modalities of workshops must bear in mind the sensitive nature of the <br>questions of discussion; and thus must ensure that questions are carefully structured and<br>aligned to a community’s cultural modalities.<br><br></p> Nancy Njiraini, Amina N. Kamando Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Undergraduate Female Student-leaders in Higher Education: Leadership Identity and Development in Tanzania <p>This study investigated the development of leadership identity among six female <br>undergraduate student-leaders in higher learning institutions (HLIs). Based on the <br>hexagon and motivation to lead theories, the study focused on personal knowledge, <br>beliefs and actions that female undergraduate student-leaders attach to their leadership <br>identities. Furthermore, the study explored the perceived leadership motivational factors <br>for female student-leaders in HLIs. The study employed a phenomenological interpretive <br>approach to investigate the lived-experiences of female student-leaders related to their <br>leadership identities and developments in three HLIs. The study noted that there are <br>important roles played by parents, peers, teachers and religious institutions in developing <br>female student-leaders. According to the findings, the role of peers becomes more evident <br>during the adolescent age of female-leaders. Further, the findings revealed that female <br>students’ participation in leadership is, in most cases, pushed by their feeling of a sense <br>of duty or responsibility to lead. The study recommends promoting the influence of socialnormative and affective identity among young girls within families, schools and colleges <br>to develop strong committed female-leaders.<br><br></p> Cecilia Swai Cecilia Swai, PHD Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Student-Mothers’ Experiences in Tanzania’s Higher Education Institutions: Motivational Factors and Challenges <p>This paper reports the findings on motivational factors and challenges that student-mothers face <br>in Tanzania’s HEIs (HEIs). Specifically, the study set out to establish factors for female students’ <br>plans to become mothers while in universities. It also explored the challenges these studentmothers faced. Sixteen (16) student-mothers took part in semi-structured interviews. Thematic <br>analysis facilitated data analysis. The study found that most of the student-mothers did not <br>envisage having children while studying. The factors that influenced them to become mothers <br>while studying included: ongoing university policies that allow female students to have children, <br>assured support, health and age factors, religious beliefs, and ability to manage parenting roles. <br>On the other hand, the student-mothers revealed the different challenges they faced, including:<br>balancing time for studies and parenting, financial constraints, finding and dealing with babysitters, accommodation problems, and psychological problems. In conclusion, the study calls for <br>HEIs to empower female students with appropriate skills to make informed decisions in their <br>relationships for the betterment of their studies and wellbeing.<br><br></p> Fortunatha Mathias Matiba, Sarah Ezekiel Kisanga Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 How Does Gardening Activities Fit into the Lives And Gendered Responsibilities of Women? The Case of Vegetable Cultivation in Morogoro Municipality <p>This study explored how gardening activities fit into the lives and gendered <br>responsibilities of female gardeners. The specific objectives were to understand how a <br>woman allocates her time to fit into domestic and gardening activities; how domestic <br>work affect the participation of women in gardening activities; as well as the implications <br>of the struggle to balance domestic and gardening activities. The study was conducted <br>among female gardeners who cultivate and sell leafy vegetables in Morogoro Municipality. <br>The study adopted a descriptive qualitative approach, whereby snowball sampling was <br>used to select 17 female gardeners cultivating in open spaces. In-depth interviews and life <br>histories research methods were used to document the experiences and efforts of female <br>gardeners in balancing gardening and domestic activities. Results showed that despite <br>female’s financial contribution to the household, gender responsibilities have not <br>changed; and a woman is expected to do all domestic activities. In this case, a female <br>gardener must balance between gardening activities and domestic work, whereas <br>sometimes her participation in gardening is compromised. The extent to which domestic <br>activities affects gardening activities depends on the age of a female gardener, marital <br>status, age of her children, and the availability of other female members in a household <br>who support her. These determine the extent of domestic activities a woman performs as <br>her duties before going to a garden. The study concludes that participation of women in <br>gardening activities elevate their economic position, although the struggle to accomplish <br>the productive and reproductive roles is real: gardening activities are imposing new <br>routines that intensify their labour. Furthermore, the limited availability of household <br>assistance and increased work-burden hinder opportunities for women to expand <br>vegetable cultivation, as well as having adequate time to rest</p> Betty David Mntambo Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Female Access to, and Control Over, Resources in Tanzania: The Case of Migrants Maasai Women in Dar es Salaam City and Bagamoyo District <p>This paper examines female access to, and control over, resources in Tanzania. Specifically, <br>the objectives were to identify resources owned by Maasai at family level; examine women <br>access to, and control over, resources after migration; and assess women’s ability to sell <br>resources in their families. The paper emanated from a mixed method of cross-sectional <br>study conducted in Dar es Salaam city and Bagamoyo District to a sample of 230 obtained <br>through systematic and purposive sampling, respectively. The sample was drawn from six (6) <br>wards in Dar es Salaam and two (2) wards in Bagamoyo. Quantitative and qualitative data <br>were collected through questionnaire and key informants’ interview, respectively, whereas <br>respondents were selected using the snowball technique. Quantitative data were analysed<br>using descriptive statistics, while qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. The <br>findings showed that the major resources owned by Maasai families are livestock and land. <br>Ownership of livestock is private, while land is owned communally. Women are the <br>managers over livestock, but have less or no control over them. Climate change impacts such <br>as unreliable rainfall that result into prolonged drought, animal diseases and deaths, and <br>other difficulties push Maasai men to migrate with animals to other rural areas, and women <br>to nearby cities and towns. Findings show that income generated through migration has <br>enabled Maasai women to have access to, and control over, resources; and increased their <br>ability to have a say over family resources. Thus, local government authorities should ensure <br>security in the informal sectors, particularly in the cities and urban centres, as they are central<br>for women income-generation and ultimately, empowerment.<br><br></p> Elizabeth Lulu Genda Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Motherhood, Career Development and Modernization: Experiences of Early Post-Colonial Tanzanian Women <p>This paper is about the evolution of early post-colonial women in Tanganyika and the <br>dilemma they encountered in balancing between family obligations and growing up in <br>professional career. To understand such contradicting options, the paper situates the <br>discussion from the perspectives of women’s narratives gathered from the printed media of<br>the early 1960s to mi-1960s. The paper uses interviews gathered during this time by media <br>specialists, newspaper columnists, and fans of women’s life histories who wrote stories and <br>narratives of young women of Tanganyika. Their target groups were middle-class women:<br>teachers, secretaries, wives of renowned politicians, business women and social activists. <br>Such interviews covered wide career areas and livelihood in general: fashion, professional <br>life, hobbies, modelling, education, home life, child care and politics. The efforts of these <br>women enthusiasts to try to search for a modern woman in a post-colonial setting unveiled <br>complex discussions about their personal journeys towards modernity, their worries, their <br>interactions, and their internationality. The interviewed women were educated, <br>internationalist, ambitious, and positively prepared to embrace opportunities and challenges <br>that the new nation was bringing about. The stories of these women help to address <br>contemporary issues that restrain women from reaching their career choices. The paper <br>concludes by asserting that as far as women are concerned, the option between motherhood <br>and career development will remain critical until when men agree to share the burden of <br>taking care of children, and the home in general.<br><br></p> Samwel Mhajida Samwel Mhajida Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000