Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) <p>The Journal of Education, Humanities &amp; Science (JEHS) is an interdisplinary International Journal devoted to the study of matters related to Education, Humanities, Social Science and Natural Science.</p> <p>The main aim of the Journal is to gather and disseminate under a single cover a wide variety of research and discussion of fundamental concern to all those scholers who have an interest in Education, Humanities, Social Science and Natural Science.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Dar es Salaam University College of Education (DUCE) & University of Dar es Salaam en-US Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 1821-7427 Hip-hop Poetry and Political Transformation: Citing Examples from Tanzania <p>This article describes the role of hip-hop in political transformation of African countries,<br>citing examples from Tanzania. The article presents that hip-hop artists view the political<br>systems of most African countries as the source of the continent’s socio-economic crisis and,<br>therefore, demand for change of African political systems and behaviours. This article is a<br>result of a qualitative research that deployed various research methods, including text<br>collection and analysis, transcription, interviews, and administration of questionnaires. Hiphop texts were collected, transcribed, and analysed. Data collection, analysis and<br>interpretation were guided by the reader response literary theory, which views the<br>interpretation of literary genres—hip-hop poetry being one of them—as being determined<br>by the reader/audience. Generally, our research revealed that many hip-hop artists in<br>Tanzania call for political transformation. They call upon people to participate in elections,<br>elect responsible leaders, and put an end to political corruption and favouritism. Other calls<br>include political repentance, access to the constitution, and the separation between politics<br>and business. Also, the article describes how hip-hop artists call for women’s participation<br>in politics, formulation of new a constitution that will enable free and fair elections, and<br>youth involvement in politics. The article places politics at the centre of initiatives to enhance<br>socio-political and economic development of Tanzania and other African countries.</p> method samwel Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 9 3 Patterns of Linkages Between Technical Institutions and Extractive Industries in Developing Practical Skills of Graduates in Tanzania <p>This study sought to examine patterns of linkages between technical institutions and<br>extractive industries in developing practical skills of graduates. Specifically, the objectives<br>were to examine forms of linkages between technical institutions and extractive industry<br>firms in selected sites; and analyse work-organizing in linkages of technical institutions<br>with extractive industry firms. To this end, a multiple-case study design was employed.<br>Data collection involved a total of 55 participants, constituting 21 trainees, 12 trainers,<br>and 3 principals/deputy principals. Other participants were 15 officials from extractive<br>industry firms; 3 from regulatory body for technical institutions, as well as 1 industrial<br>association in Tanzania. Data were generated from documentary reviews, semi-structured<br>interviews, and focus group discussions (FGDs). The findings revealed that the patterns of<br>linkages in the selected technical institutions and extractive industry firms is shaped by<br>technical institutions and firms that seem to loosely couple the efficient coordination and<br>cooperation on activities related to developing relevant practical skills of graduates.<br>Evidence shows that activities are executed without orientation to the actual partners in<br>the linkages; and the roles in the linkages were accepted without shared expectations,<br>intentions, and objectives. As a result, technical institutions tightly conform to<br>institutional demands with loose conformity to developing relevant practical skills<br>processes. Based on the findings, the study recommends the government to intervene by<br>enforcing and fostering the linkages to achieve the required objectives through<br>intermediary actions and creation of institutional environment for participation of key<br>stakeholders in developing practical skills of graduates in technical institutions,<br><br></p> Kenneth R. Nzowa Blackson Kanukisya Aneth Komba Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 9 3 Archaeological Perspective on the Impacts of Caravan Trade Expansion in East Africa: Emerging Alternative Histories <p>The last two decades have witnessed an increase of archaeological research interest in the<br>East African caravan trade, a topic that was traditionally exclusive to historians. Long-term<br>empirical evidence currently generated by archaeologists continues to consolidate our<br>understanding of the caravan trade, and helps to question some inferences previously<br>drawn from colonial libraries. This paper presents archaeological evidence unearthed from<br>the Northern and Southern caravan routes located in the corresponding areas in the<br>contemporary northern and southern Tanzania. The paper engages material evidence to<br>re-examine some of the consequences of the caravan trade commonly reported in<br>historical writings. Doing so, the paper demonstrates the utility of considering material<br>culture records in studying and re-writing Africa’s recent past.<br><br></p> Thomas Biginagwa Philbert Katto Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 9 3 Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentration in Soils Around Geita the Gold Mine, Tanzania <p>Health issues related to gold mining cannot be underestimated. Gold mining produce acid<br>mine drainage (AMD), which in turn releases heavy metals into the nearby environment,<br>hence causing environmental pollution. Heavy metals are naturally very toxic, thus pose a<br>great health concern especially when their concentration exceeds the recommended<br>permissible limits. In this study, concentrations of five heavy metals—including Pb, Ni, Cr,<br>Cu and Zn—were assessed in the soil around Geita Gold Mine (GGM). A total of 17 sampling<br>sites were established from which the soil samples were collected at 0-15cm and 15-30cm<br>soil depth. The concentration of both total and available metal concentrationsfrom each soil<br>sample was determined using the Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optic Emission Spectrometry<br>(ICP-OES) Varian 720-ES. Soil characteristics—namely pH, CEC, organic carbon percentage<br>and clay—were also determined to assess their influence on heavy metals availability. The<br>highest total metal concentration observed in the soil was 212.4mg/kg for Cr, followed by<br>71.0mg/kg, 66.2mg/kg, 61.2mg/kg and 50.2mg/kg for Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni, respectively; while<br>the highest available metal concentration observed was 26.16mg/kg, 20.13mg/kg,<br>17.99mg/kg, 7.43mg/kg and 2.10mg/kg for Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cr,respectively. Generally, the<br>concentration of all heavy metals studied—except Zn—were found higher than the safe<br>permissible limits, indicating some degrees of soil pollution. Such trends raise a concern<br>about the quality of local foods grown in the area, and the need to remedy the polluted soil.<br>However, a Monte Carlo Permutation test showed that none of the soil characteristics<br>assessed had significant influence on heavy metals availability in the soil (P&gt; 0.05).</p> mariam mgendi Mkabwa K.L Manoko W.J.S. Mwegoha C. Southway Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 9 3 Mentoring Experiences in Higher Education: Voices of Early Career Academics (ECAs) at the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania <p>Based on phenomenological inquiry, this paper analyses the perspectives and<br>experiences of early career academics (ECAs) in obtaining mentoring support at the<br>University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM). Phenomenological focus group discussions and<br>phenomenological interviews were used to access narrative accounts from 21 ECAs. The<br>study employed specific and step-by-step idiographic case study data analysis with a<br>precise focus on the shared experiences of participants. The findings unveil mixed<br>experiences in obtaining mentoring support among ECAs, the presence of peer<br>mentoring, and the pivotal role of personal relationship in mentorship practices.<br>Moreover, it was revealed that limited resources, time, and research projects;<br>involvement of senior academics in administrative duties; and unequal power relations<br>between ECAs and senior academics are the potential setbacks for best mentoring<br>practices. The study recommends an organizational change to institutionalize<br>mentoring as a career development strategy that should be practised by both ECAs and<br>senior counterparts.</p> Joel Kayombo Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Education, Humanities & Science (JEHS) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 9 3