Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) <p>The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (JHSS) at Dar es Salaam University College of Education (University of Dar es Salaam) is an interdisciplinary refereed journal that disseminates original research works, scientific review works, and proposals for methodological shifts in these fields: anthropology, archeology, development studies, economics, fine art, gender issues, general linguistics, geography, history, language studies, language in education, literary studies, performing art, philosophy, political science and public administration, among others. The journal also seeks to publish high-quality creations and innovations of the theoretical frameworks in the disciplines mentioned.</p> <p> </p> Dar es Salaam University College of Education (DUCE) & University of Dar es Salaam en-US Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 1821-7427 A Lexical Analysis of the Verb of Perception BONA (see) in Setswana <p>The verb ‘BONA’ (to see) in Setswana represents semantic entailments that are not included <br>in the general entailments that the verb of most perceptions UTLWA (perceive – taste, <br>hear, comprehend, smell, feel) presents. The critical question is what is the basis of the <br>exclusion of BONA from the semantic entailments found in UTLWA? To respond to this <br>question, it is important to examine and characterize the semantic domains of BONA. This <br>verb demonstrates some interesting polysemism when used in different syntactic <br>contexts. The paper will first present the verbs of perceptions in Setswana and their <br>semantic relationships. Further, it will suggest that in the lemmatization of BONA, its <br>varied and specialized semantic entailments that characterize it need to be presented and <br>discussed critically to capture the cultural and linguistic richness of this verb.<br><br></p> Andy Chebanne Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 2022-06-18 2022-06-18 11 1 The Persuasive Effect of Legitimation Campaign Discourse <p>This paper is concerned with the persuasive effect of legitimation discourse on <br>Tanzanians’ voting decisions. It examines how former President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete <br>and Dr Wilbroad Slaa deployed language during the 2010 presidential election <br>campaign to elicit support from the electorate. It also looks at non-discursive/nonlinguistic factors that influenced the same decisions. The data analysed in this paper is <br>from some of their campaign speeches, and from focus group discussions as well. In <br>analysing the data and discussing the findings, the study draws on Theo van Leeuwen’s <br>semantic-functional approach to critical discourse analysis (henceforth CDA). The results <br>show that the candidates’ discursive strategies, as well as other factors such as one’s <br>political affiliation, influenced the voting decisions of a fair number of respondents. The <br>paper argues that this happened because most of the respondents lacked critical <br>politico-discursive awareness, which would have opened their eyes if they had.<br><br><br></p> Kelvin Mathayo Lukanga Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 2022-06-18 2022-06-18 11 1 The Influence of Christianity in Swahili Literature: The Case of Bongo Flavor Poetry Prophesies <p>The influence of religion in Swahili literature has been a centre of Swahili literary <br>scholarship discussions from the 1960s to 1980s. During the time, there were two <br>schools of thought. The first argued that Swahili literature originates from God and that <br>He is the first artist who transmits creative skills to Swahili artists. The second school <br>of thought viewed Swahili literature as a product of socio-economic human activities,<br>and that God has no place in it. By the late 1980s, the discussion on the place of God in <br>Swahili literature appeared to be concluded by a good number of scholars supporting <br>the second school of thought. Consequently, today scholars seem to be in agreement <br>that God has no place in Swahili literature. This article, however, views this agreement <br>as a serious oversight. Since the Swahili society believes in various kinds of gods and <br>religions, there is no way their literature will be free from the influence of gods and <br>religions. Therefore, this article presents the influence of Christianity in Swahili <br>literature, citing examples from prophesies of bongo flavor poetry. <br><br></p> Method Samwel Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 2022-06-18 2022-06-18 11 1 Agentive Intertextual Insertions: (Re)presentation of Albinism in Nwelezelanga: The Star Child’s Subtext <p>The relationship between African traditional healers (sangomas) and persons with <br>albinism is contradictory. Sangomas are rumoured to fuel the narrative that body parts <br>of persons with albinism have magical powers, and so can be harnessed and used by <br>quick wealth-seekers. That narrative has claimed lives and agency of many albinos. <br>There is, however, an emerging trend for sangomas to revert this narrative through <br>media. A good example is Unathi Magubeni, a South African practicing sangoma, who <br>has authored the novel: Nwelezelanga: The Star Child (2016), on the topic. Borrowing <br>from critical ideas on intertextuality, disability studies and agency, this study analyses <br>Magubeni’s subtext to ascertain its activism on albinism. The study conducts an <br>intertextual analysis of the novel to find out how the text (de)humanises persons with <br>albinism, and whether it resists or affirms various perceptions and stereotypes <br>regarding albinism. It argues that intertexts in the novel ambivalently (re)signify beliefs, <br>stereotypes, and perceptions regarding albinism and persons with the condition. <br><br></p> Spemba Spemba Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 2022-06-18 2022-06-18 11 1 Challenges and Prospects for the Rock Art of Mumba Rock-shelter <p>The Mumba rock-shelter and its surrounding landscape are places where evidences for <br>the evolution of human cognitive behaviour and other cultural practices have been <br>uncovered. Deep and stratified archaeological deposits recorded at Mumba have shown <br>unique distinctive technological and behavioural traits with possible connections <br>between Middle Stone Age (MSA), Later Stone Age (LSA), Neolithic, and Iron Age <br>cultures. Archaeological records were found associated with symbolic-revealing objects <br>such as ochre pigments, beads, and stone rubber stained with red ochre, which express <br>the cognitive ability of ancestors who inhabited Mumba rock-shelter and the <br>surrounding landscape from the MSA to the present. Ochre pigments are believed to be <br>one of the ingredients for painted figures executed globally on Precambrian and gneiss <br>rock-walls. Despite being a significant part of human intellectual achievements, the rock <br>art images depicted at Mumba have been severely affected by physical weathering and <br>anthropogenic actions. This paper explores the extent to which the rock art of Mumba <br>reference cultural processes, conservation challenges, and prospects for future uses.<br>The presented data were collected through in-depth documentation using modern <br>analytical techniques such as ImageJ and Adobe Photoshop C5 softwares to trace the <br>paintings. Two traditional systems of hunter-forager and Bantu speaking paintings were <br>identified at Mumba. However, the conservation status of the rock art of Mumba is not <br>ideal, which necessitates collective management approaches.<br><br></p> Pastory M. Bushozi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 2022-06-18 2022-06-18 11 1 Contextualising the Pillars of Household Food Security: Evidence from Iringa District, Tanzania <p>This paper contextualises the pillars of food security based on the perceptions of local <br>communities in Iringa district, Tanzania. The pillars are food availability, food accessibility, <br>food affordability, food adequacy, food acceptability and food stability. The study involved<br>376 participants. Structured interviews, field observation, focused group discussions, indepth interviews and documentary review were the methods used for data collection. <br>Findings reveal that many households (76.2%) in Iringa were facing food shortage. The <br>findings show that food insecurity in the district was exacerbated by the lack of steadiness <br>in the six pillars of household food security. Given its semi-arid climatic conditions, the <br>study concluded that the instability of these pillars push many households in the district <br>into food insecurity and loss of income. This leads to the recommendations that efforts <br>by the government, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the private sector to <br>alleviate recurrent food shortages in the district should focus on helping households <br>address the sustainably of each of the pillars of food security.<br><br></p> Tiemo Romward Haule Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 2022-06-18 2022-06-18 11 1 From Career Choice to Career Change: Experiences of PGDE Students in Tanzania <p>This article presents findings from a qualitative inquiry that explored the underlying <br>motives of career change among Postgraduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) students <br>in Tanzania. Focused group discussions (FGDs) were used to collect data to address <br>two study objectives: first, explore the reasons why PGDE students tend to change <br>their career; and second, determine PGDE students’ intentions to join and stay in the <br>new career. The findings indicate that career change is motived by both intrinsic and <br>extrinsic factors. Specifically, career change motives are due to job dissatisfaction, <br>employment opportunities, wrong first career choice, and the desire for career growth. <br>This article provides relevant information on career change influencers and intentions <br>of PGDE students to join and stay in their new careers. A teacher who has moved from <br>one career paths to another needs professional support to cope with various <br>professional challenges. This would not only bridge the gap between becoming and <br>being a teacher, but also make easy for them to grow professionally. Based on the <br>findings, the article concludes that different motives for career change imply that <br>quality teacher training, and recruitment and retention strategies in the teaching <br>profession are worth re-thinking. The findings are discussed in the context of teacher <br>attraction and retention in Tanzania.<br><br></p> Jaquiline Aman Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Humanities & Social Science (JHSS) 2022-06-18 2022-06-18 11 1