Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Awareness and Practice of Gender Responsive Pedagogy in Higher Learning Institutions: The Case of Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania

Judith S. Kahamba, Fatihiya Ally Massawe, PhD, Ernest S. Kira, PhD

Abstract

Tanzania is among Sub-Saharan African countries where teachers are conditioned by
male-dominated values in their communities. This has been one of the factors
perpetuating gender inequality in various levels of education. With the understanding
that gender sensitive teaching aims at equally supporting the learning of male and
female students, this disparity calls for the promotion and adoption of gender
responsiveness teaching practices in higher learning institutions (HLIs) to correct
gender bias in the learning process. The argument here is that the teaching and learning
environment in higher learning institutions is not only gender-imbalanced but also it is
not well known on whether instructors are aware of gender sensitive teaching
techniques, and to what extent do they mainstream gender sensitive teaching practices
in their daily teaching practises. Thus, this study had two objectives: (a) to assess the
level of awareness in gender responsive pedagogy among university instructors; and (b)
to determine the extent to which instructors practice gender responsive pedagogy
methods in teaching. The study adopted a cross-section survey research design where
the data were collected using a questionnaire from a random sample of 83 academic
staff. The study adopted descriptive analysis using SPSS Computer Software to analyse
the collected data. The findings show that members of academic staff have a partial
awareness of gender sensitive teaching practices. Overall, the findings revealed the
degree of gender sensitive pedagogical teaching practices to be very low. The paper
recommends that universities should continue with awareness campaign and training
workshops to academic staff through gender policy implementation committees.

Keywords

gender, pedagogy, awareness, learning, practice, institutions, education

Full Text:

PDF

References

Association for the Development for Education in Africa (ADEA). 2006. Optimizing Learning and

Education in Africa – The Language Factor. A Stock-taking Research on Mother Tongue and Bilingual

Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Working Document presented at ADEA Biennial Meeting.

Barton. A. C. 1998. Feminist Science Education. New York: Teachers College Press.

Adu-Yeboah, C & Forde, L.D. 2011. Returning to Study in Higher Education in Ghana: Experiences of

Mature Undergraduate Women. Research in Comparative and International Education, 6(4): 400–414.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).1998. Teacher Education. New York: Oxford

University Press. Retrieved 18th January, 2016 from http://www.project2061. org/ publications

/bfr/online/Teacher/text.htm.

African Union. 2003 (AU). Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People's Rights on the

rights of Women in Africa, adopted by the Heads of State of the African Union, Maputo.

Retrieved 17th January, 2016 fromhttp://www.achpr.org/english/_info/women_en.html.

Arreman, I. E. & G. Weiner. 2007. Gender, Research and Change in Teacher Education: A Swedish Dimension. Gender and Education, 19(3): 317–377. Retrieved 18th January, 2016 from http://www.

tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09540250701295478.

Association of African Universities (AAU). Mainstreaming Gender in Higher Education in Africa. Accra.

Retrieved 14th September, 2015 from http://www.ungei.org/ resources/ files/ Toolkit_ complete.pdf.

Banks J. A. & M. Banks C. 2005. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives (5th edn.), Hoboken,

NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Barker, G., R. Vierma, J. Crownover, M. Segundo, V. Fonseca, J. Contreras, B. Heilman, & P. Pawlak.

Boys and Education in the Global South: Emerging Vulnerabilities and New Opportunities

for Promoting Changes in Gender Norms. Journal of Boyhood Studies, 6(2): 137–150.

Becker, R. 2009. Gender in Bachelor and Master Courses, University of Dortmund, Dortmund.

Retrieved 15th April, 2016 from www.gender-in-gestufte studiengaenge.de/ en_curricula_

beispiel.php? gruppe=3&lg=en&curriculum=3.

Chartock R. K. 2010. Strategies and Lessons for Culturally Responsive Teaching: A Primer for K-12 Teachers.

Boston, MA: Pearson.

Concordia University 2013. What Role Do Teachers Play in the Educational Equity? Retrieved 9th

August, 2016 fromhttp://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/ed-leadership/what-role-do-teachersplay-

in-the-educational-equity-movement/.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-DESA). 2015. The World’s Women

Trends and Statistics. New York: United Nations.

Engel, L & D. Rutkowski, 2012. UNESCO Without U.S. Funding? Implications for Education Worldwide.

Bloomington: Center for Evaluation & Education Policy.

Forum for African Women Educationist (FAWE). 2005. Gender Responsive Pedagogy: A Teacher’s Handbook.

Retrieved 9th August, 2016 from http://www.ungei.org/ files/ FAWE_ GRP_ ENGLISH_ VERSION.pdf.

—. 2006. Gender responsive pedagogy. Retrieved 11th July, 2016 fromhttp://www.adeanet.org

/adea/biennial-2006/doc/document/B5_2_fawe_en.pdf.

—. 2009. Gender-Responsive Pedagogy. Available at http://www.fawe.org/activities/ interventions/

GRP/index.php?lang=2〈=1.

—. 2016. Gender-Responsive Pedagogy. Retrieved 7th May, 2016 from http://fawe.org /activities/

interventions/GRP/index.php.

Gay G. 2002. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research and Practice, New York, NY: Teachers

College Press.

Fox, D. 1983. Personal Theories of Teaching. Studies in Higher Education, 151: 151–152.

Komba, S. 2011. Gender Responsive Pedagogy Lesson Planning. Retrieved 15th July, 2016

fromhttp://www.slideshare.net/sophiakomba/gender-responsive-pedagogy-g-r-p.

Kreitz-Sandberg, S., 2016. Improving Pedagogical Practices through Gender Inclusion: Examples

from University Programmes for Teachers in Preschools and Extended Education. International

Journal for Research on Extended Education, 4(2): 71–91.

Kreitz-Sandberg, S. 2013. Gender Inclusion and Horizontal Gender Segregation: Stakeholders'

Strategies and Dilemmas in Swedish Teachers' Education. Gender and Education, 25(4): 444–465.

Iqbal, J. 2015. The Educational Struggle Faced by Girls Around the World. Retrieved 15th April, 2016

from http://www.bbc.com/news/education-33424525.

Lahelma, E. 2014. Troubling Discourses on Gender and Education. Educational Research, 56(2): 171-183. Lan, S. 2010. A Gender Perspective on Educational Facilities. Retrieved 10th July, 2016 from https://www.

oecd.org/edu/innovationeducation/centreforeffectivelearningenvironmentscele/45566604.pdf.

Larkey, F.R & J. L. Knight. 2002. Test-retest Reliability and the Birkman Method. Accessed on 15th

July, 2016 from www.careerlab.com/birkman_reliability.pdf.

Luke, C. & J. Gore (eds.). 1992. Feminisms and Critical Pedagogy. New York: Routledge.

Mlama, P., M. Dioum, H. Makoye, L. Murage, M. Wagah, & R. Washika, 2005. Gender Responsive

Pedagogy: A Teacher's Handbook. Nairobi: Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE).

Mossman, M.J., 1995. Gender Issues in Teaching Methods: Reflections on Shifting the Paradigm.

Legal Education Review 6(2): 129–152.

National Sciences Education Standards (NSES). 1999. National Committee on Science Education

Standards and Assessment, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Norton, B. & K. Toohey (eds.). 2004. Critical Pedagogies and Language Learning. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press.

Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) & Centre for Educational

Research and Innovation (CERI). 2008. International Conference “Learning in the 21st Century:

Research, Innovation and Policy” 15–16 May 2008, available on http://www.oecd.org.

Orodho, J. A. 2014. Policies on Free Primary and Secondary Education in East Africa: Are Kenya and

Tanzania on Course to Attain Education for All (EFA) Goals by 2015 IOSR Journal of Humanities

and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 19(1): 11–20.

Siedentop, D. & D. Tannehill. 2000. Developing Teaching Skills in Physical Education. Mountain View,

CA: Mayfield.

Skjortnes, M. & H. H. Zachariassen. 2010. ‘Even With Higher Education You Remain a Woman': A

Gender Perspective on Higher Education and Social Change in the Toliara Region of Madagascar.

Gender and Education, 22(2): 193–207.

Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA). 2016. A Fourth Five Year Corporate Strategic Plan (2016 -

. SUA- Morogoro, Tanzania

Sperling, G. & R. Winthrop. 2016. What Works in Girls’ Education. Washington DC: Brookings

Institution Press.

United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 2010. The Missing Link?

Rethinking the Internationally Agreed Development Goals beyond 2015. UNESCO Future Forum

on Gender Equality. 9-11 September 2010. Athens, Greece.

—. 2015. A Guide for Gender Equality in Teacher Education Policy and Practices. Retrieved 11th

September, 2016 from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002316/231646e.pdf.

—. 2012. Youth and skills: Putting education to work. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2012. Retrieved

th September, 2016 from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/ 0021/ 002180/ 218003e.pdf.

United Nations International Children’s Fund (UNICEF). 2015. Girls' education and gender equality.

Retrieved 15th April, 2016 from http://www.unicef.org/education/bege_70640.html.

Warin, J. & V. Adriany. 2017. Gender Flexible Pedagogy in Early Childhood Education. Journal of

Gender Studies, 26(4): 375–386.

ZGF & ZOCS. 2015. Promoting the advancement of girls and boys in community schools in Zambia.

Retrieved 15th July, 2016 from http://zambiagovernance.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/

ZOCS_Promoting-inclusiveness-in-community schools_Toolkit_Final.pdf.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.